江戸城天守の立地に隠された“信長の作法”


江戸城天守の立地に隠された “信長の作法”

モンタヌス『日本史』挿絵の江戸城 / 何故か、三基の巨大天守が建ち並ぶ

6月にNPO法人「江戸城再建を目指す会」が発表した江戸城天守の再建プロジェクトは、テレビのニュース番組にも取り上げられ、ご覧になった方も多いかと存じます。

当ブログは発表の前に、城内(皇居東御苑)の現存天守台が危ない、という記事を書きましたが、その点がNPO幹部の方々の “眼中に無い” ことは明らかなようで、その意味では、プロジェクト自体は予算的に考えても、遺跡保存という観点でも、まだまだ実現性のとぼしいものでした。

ただ、ひょっとすると、それでも構わないのだ!!…という確信犯的な(失礼)運動なのだとしたら、三浦正幸先生の監修を仰いだ復元CG等がテレビで流れ、世間の耳目を集めただけでも、NPO活動としては上々の成果を得たのかもしれません。

(※なお当日の三浦先生の発表講演は、現存の天守台について「当時の石垣の高さは、現在残っている石垣よりも2メートル高かった」と、たった一言触れるだけに留まっています)

さて、その江戸城は、江戸時代の初めに「慶長度」「元和度」「寛永度」という三代の天守が矢継ぎ早に建て替えられ、したがって上の絵のごとくに? 三基の天守が同時に建っていたことは無い、とされています…

絵はあえて三代の天守をいっぺんに描いたのかもしれませんが、それらの天守の建つ位置は、ちょうど絵のように、本丸の中央部から北部へと動いていったことが判っています。

実は、その立地には「或る法則」(信長好みの作法)が隠れている?… という本邦初の指摘を今回はしてみたいと思うのです。…
 

岐阜城の復興天守/織豊政権の天守は、多くが詰ノ丸(本丸)の左手前の隅角にある…

ここでちょっとだけ岐阜城の話に戻るのをお許しいただくと、フロイス『日本史』は、山頂部の城塞について、はっきりとその性格付けをしています。

(東洋文庫版『日本史 キリシタン伝来のころ』より)

城へ登ると、入口の最初の三つの広間には、諸国のおもだった殿たちの息で、信長に仕えている十二歳から十七歳になる若侍がおそらく百人以上もいました。いろいろの知らせを上下に達するためです。そこからは誰もそれ以上中へはいることができません。なぜかというと、中では、信長は侍女たちと彼の息子である公子たちとだけに用をさせていたからです。すなわち、〔息子たちは〕奇妙とお茶筅で、兄は十三歳、弟は十一歳くらいでした。
 
 
これはもう、要するに、山頂部の城塞は「大奥」の原形なのだと申し上げても、おそらく問題は無いのではないでしょうか?

ご覧の東洋文庫版『日本史』は、ドイツ人のザビエル研究者G.シュールハンメルが翻訳したドイツ語版を、柳谷武夫氏が日本語に翻訳し直したもので、二重の翻訳がかえって文体のあいまいさを整理した感もあり、特に山頂部は「その山頂に彼の根城があります」と、「根城」という訳語を使った点は注目に値するでしょう。

つまり山頂部の(天守を含む)城塞こそ信長と家族の「根城」であり、それが「大奥」の原形だったとするなら、そうした岐阜城の使い方は、織豊政権以降の城郭プランに大きな影響を残したように感じるのです。すなわち…

このところの記事で申し上げたように、山麓居館の表と山頂部の城塞が、それぞれハレ(公)の空間とケ(私)の空間に使い分けられるなかで、山頂部は「大奥」と同じ役割を持ち始めたのではなかったでしょうか。

そして注目すべきは、やはり天守の位置でしょう。

信長以降、織豊政権下の天守は、かなりの確率で「本丸・詰ノ丸の左手前の隅角」に建てられているのです。

ダマサレたと思って数えて戴ければ、あの天守も、この天守も、と思わぬ天守が次々と当てはまることがお判りになります。

膳所城の絵図(滋賀県立図書館蔵)/やはり本丸の左手前の隅角に天守

大変に分かり易い例が、琵琶湖畔の膳所(ぜぜ)城でしょう。

城としてはややマイナーな印象の膳所城は、豊臣政権が崩壊した関ヶ原合戦の直後に、徳川家康がいちはやく実質的な天下普請を発令して築いた城です。

そしてそんな時期に完成したにも関わらず、天守は岐阜城と同様に、本丸の左手前の隅角にあるのです。(※縄張りは築城の名人とされる藤堂高虎)

何故こんなところに天守が? と一般の方々はまるで意味が分からず、首をひねることでしょうが、実はここに、信長以来の「天守建造の作法」がしっかりと脈打っているのです。!!…

もう一例、これはどうでしょうか? かの名城、伏見城です(絵図:広島市立中央図書館蔵)

そして江戸城の寛永度(三代目)天守=赤印/これはやや「作法」が崩れている?

ここでようやく江戸城の話題に戻ります。

冒頭の再建プロジェクトの対象でもある寛永度天守は、いわゆる単立型の天守として、「大奥」の真ん中にどっぷり漬かったように建っておりました。

これはどうやら「信長の作法」が効いてないようにも見えますが、では時期をさかのぼって、初代の慶長度天守はどうだったのかを確認してみますと…

大手から見て天守は詰ノ丸の左手前の隅角!

ご覧のとおり、もはや織田信長とは何の関係も無いはずの江戸城も、「信長の作法」が踏襲されていたのだと申せましょう。

そしてここの縄張り(設計)は、やはり “名人” 藤堂高虎でした。

(次回に続く)

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
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※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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