元和度「五重天守」の建造と同時進行で、西ノ丸に隠居した二代将軍・徳川秀忠



元和度「五重天守」の建造と同時進行で、西ノ丸に隠居した二代将軍・徳川秀忠

以前の記事より / 五重以上と言われる天守

※この中には足利義昭の二条城・南之矢蔵や、豊臣秀吉の聚楽第天守、
徳川家康による江戸城の初代「慶長度(四重)天守」は含まれない…

前回、江戸城の三代目の寛永度天守は、天守の歴史において、関白や将軍など日本古来の伝統的な地位を得た者の本拠地の城に「五重天守」をもろに上げたのはこれだけ? などと申しましたが、それは前の二代目の「元和度天守」が、そういう立場を回避した形跡が感じられるからです。

元和8年の江戸城本丸の拡張工事において、本丸にいた二代将軍の徳川秀忠、西ノ丸にいた将軍家世継ぎの徳川家光、そして梅林坂辺の屋敷にいた家光の弟・徳川忠長という、三人の人物の動きからそれが分かるように思います。

【ご参考】『武州豊嶋郡江戸庄図』をもとに作成

 
元和8年  正月10日、弟・徳川忠長が梅林坂辺の屋敷をあけわたす
      (一旦、榊原忠次の屋敷に移り、3月には北ノ丸の新邸に入る)
      2月18日、慶長度天守の解体と本丸拡張の工事が始まる
      4月22日、家光が西ノ丸を出て本多忠政の屋敷に移る
      5月19日、上記の工事が完了か
      その同日に、秀忠は本丸から西ノ丸に移り、本丸御殿の増改築が始まる
      9月9日、浅野長晟、加藤忠広に新天守台の築造が命じられる(奉行:阿部正之)
      (
『御当家紀年録』「江城の殿主台の石壁を改築す」)
      11月10日、本丸御殿が完成。秀忠は本丸に戻り、家光は西ノ丸に戻る

元和9年  3月18日、元和度の新天守台が完成する
      5月、秀忠は家光に先立って江戸を発ち、上洛する
      7月、伏見城で家光が新将軍の宣下を受ける
      9月、秀忠、家光に続いて江戸に帰着し、本丸に入る

        (新将軍の家光は依然として西ノ丸を居所とする)
      12月、鷹司孝子が家光の正室として輿入れする
       ~同年中に中井正侶の設計による元和度天守が完成か~

寛永元年  1月、秀忠から家光に大馬印(=軍事指揮権)が譲渡される
      6月、家光、一旦、徳川頼房の屋敷に移る(
『本光国師日記』)
      7月、弟・忠長が駿河・遠江・甲州の計55万石を領有する
      同月、秀忠は自らの隠居所を駿府から小田原に変える方針を固める
      9月、しかし家光側からの引き止め工作で、秀忠は西ノ丸に隠居する
      11月、家光、ようやく本丸に入る

 
 
という風に、元和度天守が新たに建つ江戸城本丸の「主」が定まるまでには、細かな紆余曲折(うよきょくせつ)があったわけですが、一貫して感じるのは、秀忠の “新天守は新将軍のためのもの” という姿勢であり、結局、建造を命じた秀忠本人が、元和度の「五重天守」が建つ本丸御殿で暮らしたのは、一年にも満たない期間か、もっと短かった可能性も濃厚です。

徳川秀忠像(松平西福寺蔵/ウィキペディアより)

この秀忠という人物は、事実上の天下人ではあり続けたものの、当初は、新将軍の就任後は自分は完全な隠居の身になって、忠長のいる「駿府」で余生をおくることを願った節もあったそうですから(→細川家史料「内々ハ駿河御隠居所と御座候処」)、もはや新将軍にすべてを託したいとの思いが「五重天守」の用意に込められていたのではなかったでしょうか。

したがって新将軍の家光の側では、「五重天守」は言わば “前将軍からの就任祝いの品” であり、引き続き “自らが望んで上げた五重天守ではない” という形で扱うことも出来たはずでしょう。
 
 
しかも秀忠の側の目論見(もくろみ)としても、これだけの工夫をこらしたのですから、おそらくは元和度天守を、家光がその後も長く使い続けることを期待していたはず… と思えて来るわけでして、となると、一般に言われる「江戸城の代替わりごとの天守造替」というのは、

 初代の慶長度天守  実際は二代将軍の秀忠のための天守
 二代目の元和度天守
三代将軍になる家光のための天守

という風に考えてしかるべきなのでしょう。
 
 
ところが家光はその後、自ら天守を造替して「寛永度天守」を建てたのですから、“その天守って、いったい何??……” という疑問が広がるばかりです。
 
 
この点で、私なんぞの勝手な勘ぐりを申し添えるなら、おそらく三代目の寛永度天守は「代替わりごとの天守造替」といった既定路線から発したものではなくて、むしろ家光個人の、非常に内面的な動機が発端になっていたのではないか…

―――例えば、近年、福田千鶴先生が改めて指摘している「江は家光の生母ではない」「江と秀忠との間に生まれたのは、千・初の二女と忠長(だけ)である」(『江の生涯』)という “例の問題” に関する大胆な提示が、けっこう気になって仕方がないのです。

と申しますのも、それが「江の貴種としての役割」「江が秀忠と織田・豊臣氏、皇室・公家、大名たちとの絆をむすぶ結節点にいた」(福田千鶴『徳川秀忠』)といった見方にも展開されていて、ならば、それらを失ったあとの家光の精神はどうだったのか? という興味と「寛永度天守」とは、かなり深い所で結びつく、大きな探求テーマのようにも思えて来るからです。…
 
 
これは是非いつか、年度リポートなどで取り上げてみたい事柄ではありますが、今回の記事はあくまで「元和度天守」の方に焦点を当てて、その謎めいた実像に、少しでも迫っておきたいと思います。

ということで…

元和度天守の図面として最有力と言われる『江戸御天守』建地割(中井家蔵)

(内藤昌『城の日本史』1979年より)

(この図面によると元和度天守は)とくに五層大屋根の軒出少なく、しかもこの軒高が四層以下の逓減(ていげん)率からすると高く、概して安定感にとぼしいところに特質がある。
 
 
… ! ? 内藤先生のこの説明はどういうことなのか、上記の図面を見るだけではちょっと分かりにくいと思いますので、今回の記事では、この図面と、三代目の寛永度天守の図面として確実視される『江府御天守図百分之一』建地割(都立中央図書館蔵)との違いを、より分かり易くビジュアル化してみようと思うのです。

ただし今回はプロポーションの違いを確認するだけに留めるため、両者の縮尺を厳密に合わせるのではなくて、単に建物の木造部分の全高をぴたりと合わせる形で左右に並べてみますと…


(※元和度の方の図面は左右を反転させています)

ご覧のとおり、まず両者は最上階の軒高がかなり違っていて、これを見ますと元和度天守は確かに「五層大屋根の」「軒高が」「高く」て、けっこう頭デッカチな構造(印象)であったと分かりますし、これほどの違いがあれば(ちょうど四層目の屋根に破風が無いことも手伝って)最上階は人々の目にそうとうに大きく、印象的に見えたのではなかったでしょうか。

さらに元和度の特徴としては、どういうわけか、初重だけに長押がまわっていない、という相違点がありまして、これの意図はあまりハッキリしないものの、地上から見上げた時にはいちばん目立つ壁面なのですから、その差は誰の目にも明らかだったことでしょう。
 
 
で、こうした元和度天守の特徴を “いちばん意識的に描いた” 絵画史料としては、一見、大ざっぱな描写でありながらも、実は『武州豊嶋郡江戸庄図』(ぶしゅうとしまごおりえどのしょうず)の天守の描写が、最も重要ではないかと思うのです。

『武州豊嶋郡江戸庄図』(寛永9年/=まさに元和度天守が存在していた時期)


いずれの版も、天守の最上階と初重に、人々の目を引きつける特徴があったことを伝えている ! ! !

A.都立中央図書館蔵から引用の天守周辺


B.国会図書館デジタルコレクションから引用の天守周辺


C.東京大学蔵から引用の天守周辺

かくのごとく、どの版を見ましても、そろって最上階と初重に人の目を引きつける特徴があったことを伝えていて、これが先の図面(『江戸御天守』建地割)とシッカリと呼応している点は、他の絵画史料をはるかにしのぐ貴重な情報であると思えてならないのです。

世間では、どうも破風の配置にばかり目が行くようですが、たとえその点で申しましても、上記のAやBは決して遜色(そんしょく)のあるものではないでしょう。
 
 
では最後に、これほどまでに最上階と初重が目立って見えた原因について、もう一歩、想像力を働かせてみますと、前述のプロポーションだけでなく、ひょっとすると「外装」にも、何か原因の一端があったような気もしますし、それは、ごくごく単純に考えれば、元和度天守の壁面が、実は、柱を見せた真壁づくり!?であって、そういう中でも、破風の影響を受けない(軒高の高い)最上階と初重は、とりわけ、真壁の柱がもろに目立って見えたのではないか――― という風にも思えて来るわけなのです。! !

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
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