本当に窓が無かった?安土城天主の七重目


本当に窓が無かった?安土城天主の七重目

信長の館(滋賀県安土町)の復元例

上の写真は、内藤昌先生の考証に基づいて1992年のセビリア万博に出品され、現在は「信長の館」に展示中の七重目の内部です。

実に魅力的な原寸大の復元ですが、ご覧のとおり、この階には「窓」が一つもありません。

窓の無い最上階をもつ天守は、歴史上いくつか確認することができ、例えば国宝の犬山城天守も、遠目には窓のあるような外観でありながら、実は “見せかけの窓枠” が打ち付けてあるだけです。

犬山城天守の最上階/見せかけの窓枠

同/内部に赤く照りかえす絨毯

ご覧のような内部は、廻縁にでる戸を開けなければ真っ暗闇であり、戸を開け放つと、気持ちのいい陽光と風が入り込み、幕末に藩主が敷かせたという赤い絨毯がふかふかして、たいへん気持ちのいい空間になります。

しかしご想像のとおり、風雨の吹き荒れる日や、冬場の寒さの厳しい日などは、「望楼」「物見」と云いながら、この戸を開け放つことは容易でありません。

もし敵勢に城を囲まれた非常時において、天候が悪いと最上階は真っ暗闇、となると、何のための望楼(高層建築)なのか!?ということにもなってしまいます。

これは、ある種の、平和になった時代の、天守最上階の姿ではないのでしょうか??

(※ちなみにこの犬山城天守は、望楼部を含めて慶長6年、関ヶ原合戦の翌年の新築という新説も出されています。)

では安土城天主の七重目も、本当に窓が無かったのか? まずは文献から見てみましょう。

尊経閣文庫蔵『安土日記』(『信長記』Ⅰ類本)より

上一重 三間四方 御座敷之内皆金
外輪ニ欄干有 柱ハ金也 狭間戸鉄黒漆也
三皇五帝 孔門十哲 商山四皓 七賢
狩野永徳ニかゝせられ

(※この文献は階数を上から数えるため「上一重」は七重目のこと)
 

このように安土城天主の最上階の記録は、どの『信長記』類の本文も(金色だった範囲はやや相違があるものの、それ以外の描写は)大差ありません。

(※言葉を替えれば、どの文献も “行間補記” がクセモノなのです。)

では、そうした本文に共通する “要素” を(冷静に)書き出してみますと…
 
 
要素1.「三間四方」の「御座敷」である
要素2.「狭間戸(さまど)」が「鉄」張りで「黒漆」塗りである
要素3.縁という表現は使わずに「外輪(そとがわ)」に「欄干」がある
要素4.「狩野永徳」の描いた儒教画が4点か5点ある

 
 
これら四つの要素を他の天守と比べてみますと、安土城天主はかなり特殊でありながらも、かすかに共通点もあるようなのです。

すなわち、まがりなりにも「座敷」を備えた熊本城や小松城、そして「見せかけの欄干」を備えた丸岡城や彦根城の天守が、意外に共通性を感じさせるのです。

(※このうち「狭間戸」は、日本の城郭では一般に、堅格子(たてごうし)の入った窓を意味したこと。また「座敷」は、中世住宅において「畳敷き」を意味したことは、古建築の分野の研究成果を踏まえています。)

松山城の狭間戸の例(写真右下)

同/内側から(堅格子と外側の突上戸)

ちなみに冒頭の原寸大復元では、要素1「座敷」が板敷きに解釈され、要素2「狭間戸」はありません。これについて内藤先生は次のように述べておられます。

(内藤昌『復元・安土城』1994年より)

ここでいう狭間戸は後述『天守指図』で判明するように、東西南北の各面中央柱間にある折桟唐戸のことである。
(中略)
かの鹿苑寺金閣の最上階の床は黒漆であるを参考とすれば、この安土城天主最上階の床も黒漆であったとしてまず誤りなかろう。このくらい黒漆塗りの部分が多くなければ、『天守指図』六階冒頭の記述に「いつれもこくしつなり」というはずがないと思われる。
(※文中「六階」は地階を含まない数え方で「七重目」のこと)
 
 
折桟唐戸(おりさんからど)とは両開きで折りたためる(廻縁に出るための)桟唐戸のことですが、「狭間戸」をあえて桟唐戸と読み替え、『天守指図』の書き込みを最優先するという、先生のこうした発想の裏には、やはり文献の示す “要素” が基本的に多過ぎて、三間四方の望楼には納まらない、という悪条件も影響したものと思われます。

要素があふれる安土城天主の七重目

ですが、この悪条件を、どうにか破綻なく解決できる、画期的なアイデアはないものでしょうか?

実は、そうしたアイデアは無くもないのです。

と申しますのは、七重目は基本的に「座敷」であって、おそらく突上戸による「狭間戸」があり、そのうえ「狩野永徳」の絵のスペースも必要で、見せかけの「欄干」にせざるを得なかった… 

つまりは(特に記述の無い)「戸」がそもそも無かったのでは!!という、逆転の発想が、すべてを満足する答えになるのではないでしょうか。

戸が無かった??安土城天主の七重目(当ブログの試案)

―――「窓」が無いのではなく、逆に、廻縁にでる「戸」が無かった…

こうしたスタイルは、先に並べた天守群の中では、「丸岡城天守」にいちばん近い、ということにもなるでしょう。

草創期の安土城天主にして、すでに “見せかけの欄干” があったという当説には、なかなか抵抗感があるかもしれませんが、室内に狩野永徳の絵を四、五点も配置するという、他の天守には無い条件をクリアするための措置であったと思し上げたく存じます。

しかもこの説は、文献に伝わる「言葉」を、一語も、曲解せずに(!)着地点を見出した結果なのです。
 
 
次回も、七重目の復元をめぐる、もう一つのアイデアをご紹介します。

 

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
にほんブログ村 歴史ブログ 戦国時代へ
※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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