伝二ノ丸の正体を姫路城からさぐると…


伝二ノ丸の正体を姫路城からさぐると…

年末年始の『2009緊急リポート』で話が途切れてしまった、安土城天主から周囲に伸びていた “タコ足状の階段橋(登渡廊)” の話題に戻りたいと思います。

ご覧のように天主の三重目と伝二ノ丸の御殿とをつなぐ仮称「表御殿連絡橋」の可能性を申し上げました。

しかしその伝二ノ丸が、どんな曲輪であったのかは、「信長廟」のために発掘調査が行えず、これまでに例えば、広島大学大学院の三浦正幸先生の画期的な復元考察を筆頭として、二、三の考察があったに過ぎないようです。

三浦先生の復元考察は、ご覧の本の中でCG画像つきで紹介されたように、伝二ノ丸は「本丸の表側である西方を占めていた」曲輪であり、そこには「表御殿」が建てられたはず、というもので、まさにその通りではないかと思われるエポックメイキングな考察でした。
 
 
その表御殿は、伝二ノ丸の中央付近にあったとされているのですが、その点では、やや気になる一件があります。

と申しますのは、現在、当サイトは“白亜の安土城天主”の全景をイラスト化している最中で、その画面に伝二ノ丸の一部も含まれるため、曲輪の形状を上から横から色んな角度から見ているうちに、かねてから感じていた“疑念”がますます強くなって来たのです。

それは、伝二ノ丸は、姫路城の備前丸と、形状や位置付けがほぼ同じ構想で築かれたのではないか? という疑念なのです。

同縮尺の安土城(上が東)と姫路城(上が北)

右の姫路城の「備前丸」は、ご承知のように、雄大な大小連立天守をはじめ現状の姫路城を築いた大名・池田輝政(てるまさ)が、自らの居館を置いていた、という伝承のある曲輪です。

図のように並べますと、伝二ノ丸も備前丸も、天主(天守)に面して半円形の曲輪が設けられ、その両端から出入りする形になっていて、一方は主に城外への連絡口、一方は主に天主(天守)側への連絡口、というプランも同じです。

しかもご丁寧に、半円形の弧の先には、三角形の似たような曲輪を設けている点はご愛嬌であり、しかし、そうした基本構想が、織田信長の家臣であった頃の羽柴秀吉(後の豊臣秀吉)によって実現した可能性を思うと、笑ってばかりもいられません。

ひょっとすると、秀吉も、信長にならってここに「表御殿」を構え、さらにそれにちなんで、織田・豊臣・徳川の政権下で有力大名であり続けた池田家が、当主・輝政の居館をここに構えた、とも想像できるからです。

そうなりますと、安土城の伝二ノ丸の正体をあばく上では、姫路城の備前丸が、かなり重要なカギを握っているのかもしれません。

「播州姫路城図」にある備前丸の建築群を重ねてみると…

十数年前に発見された「播州姫路城図」によって、それまでは明確でなかった備前丸の建築群も、ある程度はっきりして来ました。

例えば備前丸の東半分(図では右側)に大きく示された建物は「御台所」「上台所」であり、曲輪の周辺部は「渡御櫓」や「長局」がグルリと取り巻いています。

そうした建築群の中で最も注目すべきは、周辺部の西側、見晴らしのよい石垣上に建てられた「御対面所」でしょう。

(松岡利郎「失われた姫路城の建築」/『歴史群像 名城シリーズ10 姫路城』1996所収)

備前丸の建物のうち、特色あるのは御対面所である。
その位置は西側の前方に張り出した高石垣の上にあり、渡櫓ながら梁行が四間半で他より大きく、御対面所と称するからには内部に接客対面のための座敷を備えていたと思われる。
現存する帯の櫓・西ノ丸化粧櫓と同じように押板(床ノ間)や棚をしつらえていたかどうか定かでないものの、備前丸が池田輝政の居館とされた伝承および近くに御台所・上台所・雪隠も存在したことと考え合わせると興味深い。

仙台城の断崖上の「本丸懸造(掛作家/かけづくりや)」/復元:三浦正幸

(松岡先生の前記論考より)

他の城で、これと似た例は久保田城本丸の「御出書院」や仙台城本丸の「掛作家」、小諸城二之丸の「御矢倉御座敷」、熊本城本丸の「小広間」・同数奇屋丸の「二階御広間」、鳥取城二之丸の「走櫓」などがある。
いずれも桁行長く梁間の大きい建物で、室内に床ノ間・上段をしつらえており、本丸において眺望がよくきく位置を占めていた。

 
 
この論考の直後に発見された「播州姫路城図」をよく見ますと、御対面所の北半分にも、やはり上段と床ノ間があったように描かれています。

こうして「曲輪の形状」を主眼にして考えた場合、安土城の伝二ノ丸においても、中央付近ではなく、むしろ石垣上の琵琶湖を見晴らす絶好の位置に、最も重要な建物があったように思われてならないのです。
 

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