イラスト解説…「安土城天主の内部は薄暗かった?」の重大な意味



イラスト解説…「安土城天主の内部は薄暗かった?」の重大な意味


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ご覧のとおり、当サイト仮説の安土城天主は、かつて内藤昌(ないとう あきら)先生が復元に用いられた静嘉堂文庫蔵『天守指図』のうち、じつは二重目・三重目・五重目だけが本来の指図(原資料)に由来するものではないか、という仮定に基づいて復元イラストを描きました。(→詳細は2009緊急リポート他)

しかも二重目(天主台上の初層)は、江戸時代に池上右平による原資料の線の読み違えがあったと仮定しますと、なんと豊臣大坂城天守との相似形が浮き彫りになるため、実際は、下図の左側のような平面形(グリーンの色づけ部分)ではなかったか… と考えております。

この結果、安土城天主の「窓」の配置については、『天守指図』で特徴的な華頭窓(かとうまど)は、二重目の壁面には一つも無く、その外側の天主台南側の塀にだけ設けられていた〔…つまりここは透塀(すきべい)の類か?〕という考え方も出来そうなのです。

透塀の実例(日光 大猷院)

これらのことは、従来から指摘されて来た <安土城天主の内部の暗さ> 問題に関して、思わぬ実相を示唆しているようにも感じられ、今回は是非ともこの件について申し上げたく思います。

さて、歴代の諸先生方による安土城天主の復元案はいずれも、『信長公記』等に狭間戸が「数六十余」とあるため、基本的に櫓と同様の防御的な壁面と考えられ、その内部は寝殿造や書院造などの御殿に比べれば、そうとうに薄暗かったとされました。

しかしそれでは、同じく『信長公記』等にある金壁や墨絵の障壁画による “立体的御殿” が台無しではないか? という指摘も度々なされ、例えば、当ブログで引用させていただいた『信長革命』でも…

(藤田達生『信長革命 「安土幕府」の衝撃』2010年より)

天主の内部空間に描かれた彩色豊かな障壁画は、効果的な採光によってこそ映えるものである。
なによりも暑さ寒さともに厳しい近江の気候を考慮すれば、窓や戸を大きく採らねば居住は不可能だ。

(中略)
安土城天主の主殿部分にあたる一階から三階までは、窓や戸を多用したかなりオープンな外観だったのではなかろうか。
あえて平易に表現するならば、書院造りの御殿を三層重ねたような構造だったと想定する。
中国の宮殿ときわめて類似した相貌を想定したほうがよいのである。

 
 
この藤田先生の文章は典型的でして、確かに天主内部の薄暗さと障壁画との矛盾に対する疑問は当然でしょうが、この文章ほどに開放的な構造では、一方で、明らかに銃撃戦を意識したはずの「鉄」の「狭間戸」が「数六十余」もあったと『信長公記』等に記されたことと、これまた完全に矛盾してしまうのです。

現存天守の内部の様子(犬山城天守では昼間も絶えず補助の照明が…)

そこで、当サイト仮説の安土城天主の「薄暗さ」を、二重目から四重目まで、階ごとに確認してみますと…

【二重目】拍子抜けするほど開放的? 実務や日常生活に適したのはこの階だけだった!?

冒頭から申し上げているように、当サイトの『天守指図』新解釈に基づきますと、二重目の南側(上)や西側(右)には「縁」がめぐらされ、板戸や障子、場合によっては蔀戸(しとみど)が入るなど、かなり開放的な造りであった可能性が出て来ます。

そして図の南東端(左上)や北西端(右下)には実線の無い部分が含まれますが、この位置まで二重目があったことは三重目との兼ね合いで妥当でしょうから、この場所はひょっとすると「素抜け」のような構造だったのではないか… とさえ想像することも可能です。
 
 
かくして、二重目は拍子抜けするほど開放的だった(!)という意外な見方も出来るわけでして、これは例えば、後の駿府城天守の独特な下層階の構造を連想させるもので、そうしたスタイルの先駆けだったのかもしれません。
 
 
そんな二重目に「薄暗い」という心配は無用で、結局、日中の実務や日常生活に適していた階はここだけだった?…という大胆な推測も許されるのではないでしょうか。
  
先生方の解釈では、この階は信長の政庁とも、生活空間とも言われましたが、いずれにしてもこれ以上ないほど最適な「明るさ」があった、というのが当サイトの復元案です。
 

【三重目】一転してこの階では薄暗い中での「対面」が演出された??

この階は『天守指図』によれば華頭窓が計十四あり、ご覧の図はそれらから入る光を模擬的に描いてみたものですが、南側(上)の武者走だけは多少、明るくなっていたことが想像できます。

しかしご承知のとおり『信長公記』等には、座敷の内外の柱はすべて「黒漆」が塗られたとあり、室内はそれだけ光を反射するものが無く、余計に暗く沈んだ雰囲気になっていたのではないでしょうか。
 
 
そんな三重目に進み出た訪問者はおそらく「十二畳」で信長の出御を待ち、やがて階下や階上から、もしくは奥の「口に八畳」から(つまりは階段橋から)信長が姿を現して、対面が行われたのでしょう。

この階では薄暗さ(暗さ)が、かえって信長の威厳を示すことに一役買ったのではないかと思うのです。
 

【四重目】先生方の解釈が分かれるこの階は「薄暗さ」も不明

当サイトの『天守指図』新解釈では、指図中の「四重目」はまるごと池上右平の加筆(創作)ではなかったかと疑問視しております。

そのため、実際の四重目は、五重目との兼ね合いから、三重目から一間ずつ逓減(ていげん)した形ではないかと考えておりまして、部屋や窓・階段等の詳細はハッキリしないものの、図のとおり『信長公記』等の各部屋はほぼ問題なく納まることが分かります。

ただ一点、この階は武者走(廊下)が無かったことになるため、部屋から部屋へと渡り歩くしかなく、したがってこの階は一連の「広間」として使うか、もしくは「納戸」が連なった空間として奥向き専用で使うしかなかったのではないかと思われます。
 
 
で、もしもこれで階全体が薄暗かったとなると、ちょっと何をするための空間か分からなくなりそうで、その場合は強いて言うなら、夜間の灯明のもとで何か(松の間=次十二間で幸若舞を舞うとか)するなど、信長一人の特殊な空間だったということにもなりかねません。

そこで、問題の多い『天守指図』四重目ですが…

申し上げたようにご覧の四重目は右平の加筆(創作)に他ならないと思うものの、ただし、東西の壁外に描かれた破風と特大の華頭窓(?)はあまりにも特徴的で、こんなものまで創作したのかと、やや気がかりです。

しかも、西側のは太い墨線で黒々と書かれているのに対して、東側のは極細の墨線で、さも自信が無さそうに書いているあたり、ひょっとして何か事情を含んでいるのでは… と好奇心が誘われます。
 
 
で例えば、これは実際の天主西面の「目撃談」か何かの別情報をもとに、右平が加筆した部分ではなかったか? と想像力をふくらませますと、先ほどの四重目の “問題点” をきっぱりと解消できる道が開けて来るのではないでしょうか。

そう仮定した場合、少なくとも西側の部屋はかなり明るかったことに?

以上のような仮定は、先生方の間で解釈が分かれて来た「四重目」について、一つ補足できる要素をもたらすのかもしれません。
 
 
今回の結論として、当サイトの『天守指図』新解釈のもとでは、安土城天主の内部は、信長が命じたのか否か、薄暗さ(明るさ)が階によってバラバラだった? という思わぬ方向性が示されることになります。

ということは、そういう各階を埋め尽くした「彩色豊かな障壁画」とは、じつは実際の鑑賞(見栄え)は二の次であって、別の主たる目的が先行した結果ではないのか… という邪推が芽生えるのです。

(※次回に続く)

(※イラストの訂正について : 一昨年の「上層部分のみ」のイラストでは、ご覧の切妻破風の真下には何も窓が無かったかのように描いており、今回、ここには五重目屋根裏階の採光用の小窓があったはず、と考えを改めて、描き加えております)

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
にほんブログ村 歴史ブログ 戦国時代へ
人気ブログランキングへ
※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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