臣下の五重天守をめぐる印象論=天下人の府城からの「距離」は関係していなかったのだろうか



臣下の五重天守をめぐる印象論
=天下人の府城からの「距離」は関係していなかったのだろうか

甲府城跡出土の金箔鯱瓦(推定の総高132cm/山梨県立考古博物館蔵)
※まことに勝手な私見ですが、細身の感じが屏風絵の聚楽第天守のに良く似ているようで…

当ブログでは過去に、天守はあったのか無かったのか、という論争に決着がつかない「福岡城」について、“空とぶ絵師” 歌川貞秀の姫路城の浮世絵が、実は福岡城を描いたものではないか? などと申し上げたりしましたが、より私の地元に近い「甲府城」でも似たような論争があり、地域の経済振興をにらんだ再建運動が続いています。

しかも甲府の方では、ご覧の金箔鯱瓦という 大きな物(ブツ) が天守台の脇から出土しただけに、どうにも治まりがつかない状況のようです。

そしてすでにご承知の、四重天守として復元案が示された甲府城天守
(※サイト「やまなしお城10万人ACTION」様のホーム画面を引用/部分)

そうした地元の依頼を受けて、三浦正幸先生がこのような復元案を示されたわけですが、先生が「四重天守」とした判断材料は、主に <天守台の平面規模> と <政権内での城主の位置づけ> が中心であったようです。
(→PDFご参照

この点について私なんぞの印象をザッと申し上げますと、例えば、ともに五重天守だった名古屋城天守と松本城天守の圧倒的!!な規模の差(総床面積など)を考えれば、天守の「重数」と「総床面積」は各々バラバラのもので、個々のケースで様々な組み合わせがあり、したがって「重数」と平面規模とは、総体的には無関係の事柄であったと思えてなりません。

そして一方、天下人に臣従した武将の中には、天下人を上回る規模の五重以上という巨大天守をあげた例もありそうなのですから、一般的に城主の「格」や所領高が天守の規模(重数)に影響したとしても、必ずしもそれらが絶対条件ではなかったのかもしれません。
 

織田政権と豊臣政権における “北の果ての巨大天守” の可能性

ご承知のように柴田勝家(しばた かついえ)の北ノ庄城、蒲生氏郷(がもう うじさと)の会津若松城には、時の天下人を上回る天守があった可能性が言われていて、であるならば、天守の「重数」は何によって決まったのか? というナゾは、今もまだ完全には解明されていないのではないでしょうか。

そこで一つ、是非とも申し上げてみたいのが、天守の「重数」を決めた因子(要素)には、天下人の府城からの「距離」も関係していたのではなかろうか… ということなのです。

この図は、以前のブログ記事でご覧いただいた「本能寺の変」当時の織田家中の天守について、今回は、その中から五重天守だけを「宗家と一門」「臣下の武将」で色分けしてみた図です。

こうしてみて、まず感じるのは、五重天守はやはり希少な存在であり、とりわけその位置が(中心の安土城は別として)織田の勢力圏の陸地の「北限」「南限」を天下に指し示すかのような立地になっていて、その逆に、本州の陸地が続く「西」と「東」の方角には一基も無い、という点が非常に際立っています。

例えば「東」では、家督を継いだ織田信忠の岐阜城がありましたが、そこにも(あえて)五重天守は置かなかったわけですから、これは織田信長が「五重天守」というものをどういう風に考えていたかを押し測る、一つの観点として重要かもしれません。

想像で申し上げるなら、信長は、天下布武の版図の広がりを最も効果的に示せる天守として「五重天守」を用いていて、そのために、東西南北の将来にわたる最終到達点とおぼしき地点だけを厳選していたのではなかったでしょうか。
 
 
そしてもう一つ、図中でいかにも目立つのが、安土城から北ノ庄城までの距離=約100kmの半径の円から、はるかに西へ飛び出した格好の「姫路城」三重天守でしょう。

この羽柴秀吉時代の天守は、考えてみれば、本当に三重天守だったのか?という議論もありえなくはないのでしょうが、おそらくは「姫路」が織田の勢力圏の西の端とは織田家中の誰もが思っておらず、とりわけ城主の羽柴“筑前守”秀吉が、そういう意志の強固な代弁者であったことが、三重天守にとどまらせた最大の理由であったようにも思えて来るのです。

では、そうした織田政権における「五重天守」や三重天守の扱いが、その後の豊臣や徳川の時代にどう変わったのかは、大変に興味のあるところで、順次、地図上で確認して行きたいと思うのですが、その前に、下の表は信長・秀吉・家康がそれぞれ死去した年でカウントしてみたものです。

五重以上と言われる天守

(※表の岸和田城天守の件は後述)
(※また豊臣の欄には、前田利家の金沢城天守や織田信雄の清須城天守なども入ったのかもしれません…)

で、このようにリストアップしてみますと、私の自説(=家康時代の江戸城は四重天守だった)もあって、徳川の欄には江戸幕府の「江戸城天守」が無いことになるのですが、不思議なことに、例えば織田の欄でも、信長が足利義昭のために建てた三重?の旧二条城天主が無く、また豊臣の欄でも、豊臣政権の政庁を飾った四重?の聚楽第天守が無いことになり、ここには何か一貫した法則が表れているようです。

これは当ブログで申し上げた仮説のように、そもそも天皇の血筋を引く「貴種」の生まれの武家ならば「天守」などは必要なく、もっぱら下克上の世の(素性の怪しい)天下人たちのために「天守」は創造されたはず、という天守発祥の原理が、ここに作用しているのではないでしょうか。

つまり「幕府」(征夷大将軍)の居館とか、「関白」の屋敷とか、日本古来の伝統的な地位を与えられてしまった城には、もはやあえて巨大な「五重天守」をあげる必要も無かった… という逆説的な論理が(この家康死去の時点までは)成り立っていたように思えてならないのです。

そして豊臣政権下の天守も前の図と同じく「五重天守」を色分けしますと、今度もまた、会津若松城の巨大天守が、天守群の「北限」(東限?)を指し示すかのように建っています。

では「南限」は?と目を移せば、ちょっと違った状態のようでいて、その実、織田政権の姫路城三重天守とまったく同じ論理が押し進められたのではなかったでしょうか。

と申しますのは、ちょうど織田の姫路城と同じような位置に肥前名護屋城があるようで、そこを新たな基点(宗家の五重天守)としつつ、豊臣政権はさらに西へ、西へと拡大を続け、そのうえで漢城(ソウル)に宇喜田秀家があげた天守は、まさにこの時の「姫路城三重天守」(→ “もっと西に進むぞ” という意志表示)であったように見えてしまうのです。
 
 
 
<勢力圏の最終到達点をにらむ防人(さきもり)としての「五重天守」と、
 最前線に突出する橋頭堡としての「三重天守」というカテゴリーもあったのか…>

 
 
 
かくして、天守の重数を決めた因子には、天下人の府城からの「距離」も関係していたという風に考えますと、前述の “北の果ての巨大天守” が現れた理由をうまく説明できそうですし、また各地の城に「五重天守」や三重天守があげられたことについて、必ずしも城主の側の「格」だけではなくて、もう一つ、政権の側からの判断(カテゴリーの指定!)があったと考えることも出来そうなのです。

では、そのような不文律が、次の徳川の時代にはどうなったか? という観点から三つめの図を作りますと、これがまた興味深い現象を示していて、江戸時代は将軍のお膝元近くでは、いかなる天守も建造をはばかる、という慣習がどこで始まったのかが見えて来るようです。

……ですが、すでにかなりの長文になって来ておりますので、これは次回のブログ記事で改めて説明させて下さい。
 
 
【補足】岸和田城の五重天守について

「正保城絵図」和泉国岸和田城図より

さて、上記の表では、岸和田城の天守を「豊臣一門の五重天守」として扱いましたが、これは当時3万石の大名・小出秀政(こいで ひでまさ)がご覧の天守を建てたとの伝来(慶長2年説)によるもので、秀政が秀吉の母・大政所の妹を妻にしていたことが「五重天守」につながったのでしょう。

しかし、この天守を建てたのは江戸初期の松平康重だという説(元和5年説)もあって、親の代に松平姓を許された康重が、この時点で「五重天守」をあげるのは、かなり分不相応の感があるものの、康重という人物は“家康ご落胤”とささやかれていたそうで、それが松平一門のトップをきる「五重天守」につながったのでしょうか。

という風に、岸和田城の五重天守はチョット分からない部分もありまして、それでもやはり小出秀政の建造と考えるならば、冒頭の「甲府城天守」だって、秀吉の正室・北政所の実家である浅野家の当主(で妹の夫の)長政が築けば、そうとうな規模(五重?)になってもおかしくありません。

が、その前の甲府城主・加藤光康が築いたとなると、三浦先生の「四重天守」という考え方に俄然、説得力を感じるのですが、なんと先生自身は「豊臣秀吉の親戚筋であった浅野長政、そしてその息子・幸長の親子によって建てられた天守閣です」と説明しておられて、私なんぞはぷっつりと解らなくなってしまうのです。…
 

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
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※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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