続・時系列のイラストで追う豊臣大坂城 …二代目の秀頼が増築した千畳敷「二階」は広大無縁な真っ暗闇か



続・時系列のイラストで追う豊臣大坂城 …

千利休の木像

前回に続いて、豊臣大坂城が豊臣時代の中でも激変をくり返したことを、当サイトの仮説に沿ったイラストでご覧いただきますが、今回もまた、話題の中心は「千畳敷」――と言っても今度のは、後継者の秀頼が、秀吉七回忌の慶長9年にわざわざ二階建てに改めたという、新しい千畳敷が中心になります。

この時、秀頼はなぜ「二階」を増築したのか? という動機については、これまで議論になった試しはほとんど無いようで、単純な受け止めとしては、何か、見晴らしのよい眺望を得るために「二階」を増築したのだろうか… といった程度に思われがちですが、私なんぞはむしろ真逆の!イメージを抱いております。

と申しますのは、例えば冒頭写真の「千利休の木像」が置かれたのは、有名な大徳寺三門の二階でしたが、この二階はそもそも利休自身が寺に寄進して増築した部分です。


(写真:ウィキペディアより)

普段は二階の扉がすべて閉じてあるため、内部に日の光がさすことも無く、真っ暗闇のなかに釈迦如来像などとともに問題の利休の木像が(現在のは幕末の復刻ですが)置かれております。

ご承知のように、利休が活躍していた頃の初代の木像は、利休の寄進に報いるために寺側が安置したものでしたが、これが利休切腹の一因になったとも言われ、このように、二階を増築、と言えば明るいイメージばかりかというと、まるで逆の印象や意味を抱えた空間もあったわけで、今回はそんな時代の豊臣大坂城に話を進めてみたいと思うのです。…

【第1図】当サイトの2010年度リポートより
築城当初(輪郭式の二ノ丸の造成前)を推定した略式イラスト


【第2図】慶長元年(1596年)慶長伏見地震の直前の最盛期


【第3図】慶長伏見地震の被害状況の推定


【第4図】慶長3年、再建計画としての中井家蔵『本丸図』の姿へ


【第5図】慶長5年、徳川家康の上杉討伐軍の出陣と同時に「極楽橋」を移築
豊臣秀頼のいる本丸の有名無実化がいっそう進む……

さて、当ブログでこのところずっと話題にして来た「極楽橋」が、京都の豊国社(豊国明神)に移築されたのは、秋に関ヶ原合戦が起きる慶長5年の5月であり、家康自身が大坂城西ノ丸を出陣したのとほぼ同時の出来事でした。

(『義演准后日記』慶長五年五月十二日条より)

豊国明神の鳥居の西に 廿間ばかりの二階門建立す 大坂極楽橋を引かれおわんぬ
 
 
―― ということは、移築の具体的な名目が気になりますが、いずれにしても、これは前々回に申し上げた極楽橋の「意味」から考えますと、朝廷と豊臣家との関係を早く絶ちたいと考えていた(に違いない)家康による “工作の一環” と見えてなりません。

そのようにして、豊臣秀頼のいる本丸を有名無実化する作業は、すでに前年の慶長4年に建造された「西ノ丸天守」のねらいと連動したもの、と思わざるをえないからです。
 
 
ちなみに私なんぞは、この時、豊臣大坂城には もはや西ノ丸天守しか天守は無かったとにらんでおりまして、したがって、かつて盛んに書かれた「大坂城に並び立った二つの天守」という解釈は、どうも納得できない、という立場にあります。

それは四重天守との関わりが深かった家康であっても、この場合に限っては、本丸天守に対して明らかに見劣りする “小ぶりな天守” に甘んじては政治的な効果や意味がありませんし、どういう形であれ、本丸を凌駕(りょうが)する形にならなければ、「御本丸のごとく」と石田三成に糾弾されるはずがないだろう!… とも思えて来るからです。

【第6図】慶長9年、秀頼時代の豊臣大坂城が完成して輝きをとりもどす

かくして政治的な軟禁状態に置かれた秀頼(当時12歳)でしたが、慶長8年の千姫輿入れを契機として、ご覧の秀頼再建天守(当サイト仮説)が完成し、豊臣家はようやく新たな城の姿を整えたのではなかったでしょうか?

話題の「極楽橋」については、京都の豊国社に移築されたあとの措置として、すかさず本丸西側の木橋を利用して新たな極楽橋を設けたものと思われますし、その外観は、大坂夏の陣図屏風にあるとおりの「黒塗り」の珍しい色の橋であったのかもしれません。

大坂夏の陣図屏風に描かれた黒い「極楽橋」(左隻の右端部分)

そして冒頭から申し上げたとおり、上記【第6図】の慶長9年(1604年)には、千畳敷が「二階建て」に改められたという記録(義演准后日記)があります。

その増築の方法としては、おそらくは冒頭の大徳寺三門などと同様に、表御殿の対面所を、一階とほぼ同じ<規模と棟方向>のまま二階を増築したのが、新「千畳敷」であろうと想定しています。

※当サイトでは、大坂夏の陣図屏風の天守や千畳敷は「南から眺めた描写」である(→リポートの前説)と申し上げて来ておりまして、そのため千畳敷の屋根は東西棟となるからです。

そして何よりも、この年が秀吉の七回忌であり、下記の絵でも知られた「豊国祭」(8月に8日間にわたって盛大に行われた豊国神社の臨時大祭)の年であったことが、二階の増築(=これも8月の完成!)と決して無縁ではないように思えてならないのです。

豊国祭礼図屏風より(部分)

この時、祭礼に集まった民衆の心には「いよいよ家康が太閤の遺言を守って天下を秀頼に譲るのではないか」という気分が満ち満ちていたようですし、そうした心理が大坂城内とも共有されていたのではなかったでしょうか。

ならば何故「二階」だったのか? という発想の出どころを考えたとき、私なんぞがまず連想するのは、かの安土城「摠見寺」の二階です。

ご覧の図は、織田信長の安土城「摠見寺」本堂の復元のために、鳥取環境大学の岡垣頼和・浅川滋男両先生が、本堂の二階に安置された有名な「盆山」の位置(高さ)について考察した図です。

両先生はこの紀要のなかで「境内の立地に目を向けると、最も背の高い三重塔を本堂よりも低い隣接地に配し、「盆山」を安置する本堂の2階から見下ろせるようレイアウトしていた。以上のような伽藍内部の空間設計を通して、信長は己が「仏を超えた存在」であることを誇示しようとしたのであろう」との興味深い指摘をされていて、これが、私なんぞには秀頼・淀殿の母子による新「千畳敷」のくわだてに通ずるように思えてなりません。

…… まことに勝手な空想ではありますが、秀頼と淀殿が新「千畳敷」に置こうと考えた何かが、少なくとも自らの居所の本丸御殿よりも “高い位置” に置かねばならない、という観念にとらわれたことが、二階の増築を考えた具体的な動機であったとは考えられないでしょうか。

それが果たして何か? 秀吉の木像(立像)!? か 盆山の類い!? かといった点は全く分かるはずもなく、空想のまた空想でしかありえませんが、それにしても新「千畳敷」というのは、秀頼と淀殿にとって初代の建物よりもはるかに切実な存在であり、広大無縁な「意味」をたっぷりと抱えた空間ではなかったか、と感じるのです。

豊臣秀頼像(方広寺蔵)

【第7図】慶長20年、大坂冬の陣の和議が結ばれた結果の惨状

多くの民衆を熱狂させた豊国祭から11年、ついに秀頼の大坂城が最期を迎える慶長20年、城は大久保彦佐衛門の『三河物語』にあるとおり「二之丸の土居、矢倉を崩し、石垣を堀底へ崩し入れ真っ平らに埋め」られてしまいます。

ただし、外堀を言葉どおりの「真っ平らに」埋めるほどの土木工事が、本当に可能だったのか? という疑問は残るため、上記の図は「破城」という形を取った状態として描きました。

この方が「あさましき体」と評された城の姿に近いようでもあり、結局、豊臣大坂城は秀吉の築城当初(当サイト仮説では南は千貫櫓のラインまで城郭化)よりも、ずっと防備の手薄な状態におちいったことになります。
 

最後に余談ながら、前出の大坂夏の陣図屏風の “黒い極楽橋” のちょうど真下には…

ご覧の、幌(母衣)を背負いつつも、いかにも高貴な緋威(ひおどし)の鎧武者は何者??

これもまた私の思い込みに過ぎないかもしれませんが、阿鼻叫喚のさまが描かれた同屏風の「左隻」を見ていて、ずーっと気になって来た鎧武者の一行が、群集のなかに描かれています。

この武者は、屏風全体で五千人にのぼる人物描写の中でも、いちばん端整な顔だちだと思うのですが、落城の直前、本丸桜門の内側で出馬の機をうかがった秀頼は、『大坂御陣覚書』に「梨子地緋威の御物具を召して」「太平楽という七尺の黒の御馬に梨子地の鞍を置きて」その時を待っていたと伝わります。

屏風絵では、鞍の色は分からないものの、伝承どおりの甲冑をまとい、鞍の下には虎皮! を敷いていて、数名の侍を連れるなど、ただの幌武者とは思えない描き方ですし、かっぷくの良さといい、年齢的にも二十三歳の秀頼として、何ら問題の無い描きぶりに見えます。

幌(母衣)や指物は脱出用の「偽装」と考えれば、むしろリアリティを感じるくらいであり、これはひょっとすると、秀頼の「生存説」を描き込んだ部分ではないのでしょうか?

一方、本丸桜門の外側には、豊臣家の金瓢の馬印のちょうど真下あたりに、上記の伝承とは明らかに異なる鎧姿の使い番らしき若武者が、さも秀頼の影武者であるかのように、それらしき位置に描かれています。

―――ということは、悲惨さばかりが強調されるこの屏風にも、実は、こんな「願望」が密かに描き込まれていたのかと、灯火のような明るさが(私なんぞは勝手に)感じられますし、そのうえ鎧武者の一行が「極楽橋」の真下に描かれたことにも、また何か、意味が込められているのではないかと思うのです。
 

※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

“続・時系列のイラストで追う豊臣大坂城 …二代目の秀頼が増築した千畳敷「二階」は広大無縁な真っ暗闇か” への179件のコメント

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