岐阜城の劇的な高低差こそ「立体的御殿」を一段と進化させたはず



岐阜城の劇的な高低差こそ「立体的御殿」を一段と進化させたはず

北方の百々ケ峰(どどがみね/標高417m)から撮影された金華山・岐阜城のみごとな写真
話題の「千畳敷」は右下の山すそのあたり(※ご覧の写真はブログ「写真を楽しむ」様からの引用です)

当サイトはこれまで、岐阜城千畳敷の信長公居館をめぐる「階段式御殿説」に対して度々、疑義を申し上げ、あらがう記事ばかりを書き続けてまいりました。

それと言いますのも、以前も申し上げたとおり、かの松田毅一・川崎桃太先生が翻訳したルイス・フロイス著『日本史』全12巻を通じて、階ごとに建物の内部を描写したのは、金閣など5例だけで、そのどれもが「一階」「二階」という表現(訳語)で月並みに階層を示していて、等しく「楼閣」類だ思えてならなかったからです。

1.金閣(第一部五八章)
2.岐阜城山麓の信長公居館(第一部八九章)
3.都の聖母教会(第一部一〇五章)
4.安土の神学校(第二部二五章)
5.豊臣大坂城天守(第二部七五章)

では、それぞれの書かれ方を、ちょっとだけご覧いただくと…

【金閣の文例】

同所には特に造られた池の真中に、三階建の一種の塔のような建物がある。(中略)二階には、幾体かの仏像と、まったく生き写しの公方自身の像が彼の宗教上の師であった一人の仏僧の像とともに置かれている。
回廊が付いた上階はすべて塗金されていた。
(中略)上層にはただ一部屋だけあって、その部屋の床はわずか三枚の板が敷かれており、長さは(空白アリ)パルモ、幅は(空白アリ)パルモで、まったく滑らかで、たった一つの節もない。
 
 
【信長公居館の文例】

二階には婦人部屋があり、その完全さと技巧では、下階のものよりはるかに優れています。部屋には、その周囲を取り囲む前廊があり、市の側も山の側もすべてシナ製の金襴の幕で覆われていて、そこでは小鳥のあらゆる音楽が聞こえ、きわめて新鮮な水が満ちた池の中では鳥類のあらゆる美を見ることができます。
三階は山と同じ高さで、一種の茶室が付いた廊下があります。それは特に精選されたはなはだ静かな場所で、なんら人々の騒音や雑踏を見ることなく、静寂で非常に優雅であります。三、四階の前廊からは全市を展望することができます。


(※東洋文庫版の柳谷武夫先生の翻訳文と照らし合わせますと、明らかに、文中の「そこ」「山の側」に、「それ」「茶室」にかかる言葉です。つまり二階は、山の側で水鳥が何種類も泳ぎまわる池を見渡せる構造であり、また三階の茶室の中が「人々の騒音や雑踏を見ることなく、静寂で非常に優雅」なのは当然で、何も不自然なことはありません)
 
 
【聖母教会の文例】

教会の敷地は狭く、隣接の異教徒たちは、キリシタンがどのように高額を支払っても、その敷地を全然売ろうとしなかったし、司祭の修道院を別の場所に建てることはできなかったから、やむを得ず教会の上に二階(すなわち第二、第三階)を設けることに決めたが、教会はすでに一階(すなわち二階)の梁まで完成していた。
 
 
【安土の神学校の文例】

二階には、一つは市の上に展開し、他は心地よい広々とした田園の眺望に向けられた幾つかの窓を付した廊下によって三方囲まれた我らの寝室、または部屋に利用される若干の広間を作った。(中略)この二階の上に、さらに一階を設け、そこには巡察師の意向に添って神学校として使用される長くよく設備された住居を建てた。
 
 
【豊臣大坂城天守の文例】

これら全階層と階段を登るごとに、関白の前を、非常に愛らしく敏捷で立派な衣服をまとった十三、四歳の少女が刀を肩に担いで進んで行った。(中略)四階までおもむろに登り終えると、関白は疲れたろうから茶を飲まれよ、と言った。すると入念に茶が運ばれて来た。
最終階に登った時にもまた彼は茶を命じ、下へ降りる時にも茶が供せられた。
(中略)(天守閣の)最終階には周囲に突出した外廊がついていた。
 
 
このようにどの建物も「一階」「二階」という風に階層が紹介されていて、そういう文体の上では、岐阜城の信長公居館だけが、取り立てて、異なった構造であったというニュアンスは感じられません。

そのため私なんぞはずっと、階段式御殿説は、千畳敷の地形に合わせて、あまりに都合良く、フロイス日本史を読み過ぎていると感じて来ました。

この際、ナレーションやコピーを仕事で書いてきた者として強く申し上げたいのは、上記の引用のごとく、どの文章も、原典の文体を尊重した翻訳文であるため、どうしても日本語としてはツタナイ部分が残っていて、もっと流暢な文体に直してしまうことも出来たのでしょうが、松田先生らはそれをあえて避けていた(!)という経緯なのです。

それはこの文献が、後々の世まで、多くの分野からの研究対象となることを見越した判断でした。

(昭和52年初版『フロイス日本史1』の訳者序文より)

「いかに重要文献であるかは、すでに翻訳された部分に対する史家の評価により十分立証されており(中略)それを簡潔にして平易な文章に変えることは、きわめて容易な業であると言いたいが、それでは原著者フロイスに礼を失することになるし、その文体の面影を損なうことになりかねず … 」
 
 
ですから、よく話題になる信長公居館の「三階は山と同じ高さで」にしても、仮に階段式御殿説の考え方に基づくなら、フロイスはもっと単純に「三階は山の中にあり」とでも書けばよかったはずのものを、わざわざ「同じ高さで」という複雑な表現で書き示したわけで、そんな原著者の意図や苦心が、階段式御殿説には反映されていないと思うのです。

おそらく「山」とは千畳敷のある中腹の「丘」のことで、それと同じ高さに三階が…

(※ちなみにこれは、以前に話題となったアルカラ版等の文献でも、同じような事柄が言えるはずです)

上図は何度もお見せして来た一連の図の新バージョンですが、これらには長らく「一階」についての注釈が付いておりませんでした。

フロイス日本史によれば、一階は部屋数が二十近くもあったとしていますし、この階の説明にいちばん多くの文言を費やしていること、そしてこの建物全体を天守の原形「立体的御殿」とする立場から考えますと、岐阜城の場合、その一階には「対面所」や「御座ノ間」をふくむ諸室が並んでいたと想定しても、特段の違和感は無いはずでしょう。

これで当サイトが考える「四階建て楼閣」のアウトラインは全て申し上げたことになりますし、また前回の記事のように、千畳敷C地区の御殿は、例えて言えば “織田信長の天鏡閣” とでも申すべき、広大な山里曲輪群(千畳敷)にふさわしい二階建ての会所だったのではないかと考えております。

しかし、ですが、ここに至ってもなお、諸先生方がどうしても「階段式御殿説」にこだわる理由を想像いたしますと…

それはきっと、岐阜城の山麓全体の御殿群の「表」と「奥」の使い分けや、山頂付近の城砦を含めた「ハレ(晴れ)」と「ケ(褻)」の空間の想定に対して、やはり四階建ての「楼閣」などはそぐわない、と先生方に思われているからではないでしょうか。

例えば、発掘調査ホームページの「地形復元図」に勝手に色づけさせていただきますと…

ご覧の図で申しますと、当サイトの「四階建て楼閣」は、足利義政の東山山荘の「銀閣」の位置にならって山麓の平地(ひらち)の部分に建てられ、それはちょうど図の「表の領域」昔御殿跡にあたるのだろうと申し上げて来ました。

ですが、一般的に「楼閣」というのは、言わば庭の“景物”の類いに含まれる建築でしたから、そんなものが「表の領域」 = 武家の公式儀礼の場である「表」の御殿群の中にまぎれて建っていたなど、もってのほかだ!! という感覚が、先生方の第一印象にはあったのかもしれません。
 
 
しかしその一方で、天守の発祥のナゾを解き明かしたい、と思ってやって来た私の立場からしますと、近年、岐阜城には「楼閣形式の居館は無かった」「山頂にも信長の時代は天守など無かった」とおっしゃる先生方がどんどん増えているようで、ならば次の安土城で、いきなり! ! 七重天主が出現したことを、どう説明できるのでしょうかと、今後への不安感に襲われてしまう今日この頃なのです。
 
 
やはり私なんぞの感覚としては、信長の <小牧山城-岐阜城-安土城> という三つの城は、天守の原形「立体的御殿」の発展過程における <ホップ-ステップ-ジャンプ> に違いない、という見立てが、どうにも捨てられません。

とりわけ岐阜城は、その劇的な高低差が「立体的御殿」を一段と進化させたはずだと感じられてなりませんで、そこでは「立体的御殿」でなければ出来ない “ある革新” があったものと考えています。

ハレとケの空間を垂直にまたぐ「立体的御殿」ならではの、コペルニクス的な革新……

どうでしょうか。これならば「立体的御殿」の発展過程における岐阜城の位置づけ、そして次の安土城で七重の天主が出現した経緯を説明するうえでも、かなりの整合性を見い出すことが出来るのではないでしょうか?

(※次回に続く)

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
にほんブログ村 歴史ブログ 戦国時代へ
※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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