議論があった<江戸城の表門は半蔵門>説との関連で申せば…



議論があった<江戸城の表門は半蔵門>説との関連で申せば…

武州豊嶋郡江戸庄図(都立中央図書館蔵)をもとに作成

近年、<江戸城の表門は半蔵門>だという新説が話題になりましたが、これは竹村公太郎著『土地の文明』2005年や、同じくPHP文庫『日本史の謎は「地形」で解ける』2013年の刊行で幅広い層に知れわたったものでした。

しかしこの新説は、歴史好きやお城好きの人ほど、賛同者は多くなかったようで、それはご覧の寛永年間の江戸図のごとく、海側の大手門を城の正面とする根強い見方があり、それをくつがえすほどの説得力は無かったからでしょうか。

これに関しては私なんぞは、江戸の成り立ちと言うと、かつて鈴木理生先生が指摘した <寛永頃までの江戸は、オランダ流の手法に似た、海を埋め立てて造成した港湾都市であり、そのためオランダ東インド会社の本拠地・バタビアと非常によく似ている> という話の方をまず思い出してしまいます。

【ご参考】江戸にも、バタビアにもあった「八丁堀舟入り」

図19B(バタビアの絵図/鈴木理生『幻の江戸百年』より引用)

(鈴木理生『幻の江戸百年』1991年より)

図19Bはモンタヌス著『日本遣使紀行』(アムステルダム版、一六六九年=寛文九年刊)中にあるバタビア港である。この一六一九年(元和五年)に建設された、オランダ東インド会社の本拠地の都市プランは、江戸と非常に似ている。
海岸に突出した「八丁堀」。そのつけ根の部分に、幕末に函館に築かれた五稜郭に似た、四稜の砲台があり、市内に縦横にめぐらされた水路と街郭は、江戸の河岸地帯を想起させる。
「八丁堀」の下に激しく砲煙をあげている帆船がみられるが、「八丁堀」の効果は、その砲撃が市街地を直撃するのを防いでいる。

(中略)
わざわざ江戸と赤道直下のバタビアの比較をしたのは、この時代の港湾都市には非常に共通する事柄が多いことを、この機会に再確認しておきたかったためである。
なお、バタビアとは現在のインドネシア共和国の首都ジャカルタの古名である。

 
 
鈴木先生の指摘はお読みのとおりでして、海と江戸城と言えば、当ブログでも、太田道灌の江戸築城の頃にさかのぼれば、海寄りの平川に架かる「高橋」のあたりが、舟運の荷揚げ地として城下の中心であったことに触れましたし、また徳川家康の江戸城についても、豊臣政権下では、東アジア制海権「城郭ネットワーク」の一翼をになう城であったはず、などという仮説を年度リポートで申し上げたりもしました。

やはり江戸にとって「海」は城の生命線をにぎる重要な存在であり、そのため海側が主要な城下であり、東海道も通りますし、そちら側に城の「表門」が無ければ、色々と不都合が多かったことでしょう。

ですから冒頭の<江戸城の表門は半蔵門>という新説は、とても言葉どおりに納得できるものではありません。

とは言うものの、大手門と半蔵門でどちらが表門か?と問うよりも、それぞれに “別次元の目的を持った正面口” だった、という風にでも考えますと、このところ申し上げている「元和度天守」と、思わぬ関係性が見えて来るのです。…
 
 
 
<名古屋城、八代城、元和度の江戸城…「連結式天守」の正面はどちらなのか?>
 
 

小松和博『江戸城』1985所収「寛永17年ごろの本丸と二の丸」をもとに作成

※注:冒頭の武州豊嶋郡江戸庄図とは上下(=東西)を逆にして見た状態です。

さて、当ブログでは「元和度天守」はご覧のような連結式天守ではなかったか、との仮説を申し上げて来ました。

その賛否はひとまず脇に置くとしまして、そもそも連結式天守……大天守と小天守が一基ずつの連結式天守は、いったいどの面が「正面」になるのでしょうか??
 
 
おそらく名古屋城天守の場合がどなたにも想起しやすいと思いますので、例に挙げますと、大天守の入口は南の小天守と向き合う側にあり、そちらを「正面」とするのが順当でしょうが、見た目では小天守が重なってしまい、いま一つという感がぬぐえません。

ちなみに “天守が層塔型であれば「正面」は関係ない” とのお考えもありましょうが、例に挙げました名古屋城や八代城は、立地が本丸の北西隅!! であり、防御上の力点が東西南北でかなり差のある状態になっていて、そういう意味では単純に “四方正面” とは言い難い状態です。

ですから、そうした連結式天守には、一応の「正面」が想定できるはずだと思うのです。

望楼型天守(犬山城)にみる「内正面」と「外正面」

そこで、ご覧に入れた図は6年前の記事でお見せしたものですが、これは望楼型天守には明らかに「正面」があり、その中でも、天守の立地場所に応じて「内正面」(=味方、本丸や城内側)と「外正面」(=仮想敵、他国との境界側)とでも言うべき二つの正面があったはず、という仮説を図示したものです。

織田信長時代の岐阜城の推定

さらにご覧に入れたこの図も5年前の記事でお見せしたものですが、当サイトでは『日本西教史』に「欧州の塔の如し。此より眺望すれば美濃の過半を見る」! ! と記されたとおりに、稲葉山の山頂には、直前までの居城・小牧山城に続く、原初的な「天守」があったはずだと確信しておりまして、それは図のように、山麓から見上げれば山頂部の “左端” に見えたはずでしょう。

これが天守の位置をめぐる<織田信長の作法>になったのだろうと申し上げてまいりましたが、現にこれ以降、織豊政権下の天守は、大手門から見た時、かなりの確率で、本丸か詰ノ丸の左手前の隅角に建てられることになりました。
 
 
では、その状況で、あえて天守の「内正面」「外正面」を問うとしますと、信長の岐阜城は畿内をにらんだ “西向きの城” であった点からも、おそらくは西の山麓側が「外正面」になり、山頂の天守の背後が「内正面」であったのでしょう。

で、そうした形は後の豊臣秀吉の大坂城天守にも…

豊臣大坂城の場合の推定

ご覧の豊臣大坂城では、左側に「天守」、その右側に「月見櫓」が見える、という並びになったと思われますが、その時、手前が「外正面」で奥が「内正面」としますと、連結式天守における「小天守」の役割の一つが見えて来るのではないでしょうか。

それはすなわち、小天守が右側に並んだ状態では、おのずと手前側が「外正面」(=仮想敵)を示すことになる、という不文律だと思うのです。

で、それは徳川の時代になっても…

名古屋城の場合の推定

このことが江戸において、生まれながらの将軍・徳川家光の就任に備えた「元和度天守」にも適用されたのではないか… と申し上げてみたいわけなのです。

元和度天守の場合の推定

※             ※

 
さて、以上のように申し上げたことは、徳川による一連の巨大天守の「唐破風」の配置方法にも、ちゃんと影響が及んでいて、造形的な配慮(統一的なデザイン)が施されたようです。

ご覧の「唐破風は天守正面の目印の代用物」という当サイトの仮説の先には…

このように、名古屋城の大天守も、江戸城の元和度天守も、徳川による妻入りの巨大な層塔型天守というのは、決まって上から二重目に「唐破風」が据えられておりまして、それは取りも直さず、直前まで徳川家で主流だった仮称「唐破風天守」を凌駕する一種の「格式」として、意図的に造形されたものだろうと思えてならないのです。…

で、そのような上から二重目の唐破風は(仮称「唐破風天守」と同じく)「正面」を指し示した目印であり、先ほどまで申し上げていた「右側に並ぶ小天守」が指し示した「外正面・内正面」の方角とも、みごとに合致していた! ! ことになるのです。

そして最後に、江戸城の元和度天守には、こんな配慮もなされていたことを…

私なんぞが思いますに、「元和度天守」はこのあたりが大変に意識的で、周到に計画された天守であったと思えてならないのです。! ! ! …
 

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
にほんブログ村 歴史ブログ 戦国時代へ
※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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