幻の石山本願寺城から ブータンの要塞寺院「ゾン」へ



幻の石山本願寺城から ブータンの要塞寺院「ゾン」へ

前回まで、当サイトの仮説による豊臣大坂城の移り変わりをご覧いただきましたが、私自身の興味として「じゃあ、この以前はどうなのか?」という関心もあり、今回は逆に時系列をさかのぼって、幻の石山本願寺城も同じようにイラスト化できるのか、さぐってみたいと思い立ちました。

石山本願寺の復元と言えば、城郭の分野に限らぬ諸先生方によって長い間、考察が重ねられて来た結果、現在では、おおむね後の豊臣大坂城と同じ位置に築かれたものと言われています。

大坂本願寺 寺内町 想像復原模型(真宗大谷派 難波別院蔵)→東側から眺めた状態

または、浄土真宗親鸞会のHPからの引用図「石山本願寺(想像図)」では…

ご覧の二つめの「想像図」は北側から眺めた状態らしく、となると御影堂が北向きに建つ点が特徴的ですが、前者の模型に比べますと、ずっと豊臣大坂城に似た雰囲気をただよわせていて興味津々です。

このような復元の基本史料になったのは、織田信長による包囲の陣形を描いた「石山合戦図」でしょうが、この「石山合戦図」というのは、淀川(大川)と四天王寺との距離感から考えますと、絵の真ん中に描かれた(水堀に囲まれた)中心部分がすなわち、後の豊臣大坂城の「惣構え」と同じ範囲である、と想定していいはずでしょう。

そこで…

石山合戦図(写)/和歌山市立博物館蔵に描かれた石山本願寺城の中心部分

この上に、当ブログで描いた豊臣大坂城の図をダブらせてみますと…(※図は左が北)

で、これをよくよく見れば…

ご覧のとおり、この和歌山市立博物館蔵の「石山合戦図」の場合、図中の「石山御堂」はサイズも位置も、後の大坂城本丸にぴったりと合致するようですし、その他の地形の起伏についても、豊臣大坂城と合致する箇所がいくつもあるようで、意外な発見があります。

こうなりますと、当サイトでずっと「豊臣大坂城の築城は、基本的な縄張りは石山本願寺城をそのまま踏襲したのではないか」と申し上げて来たのが、さらに勇気づけられるような気もしてまいります。

…… であるなら、以前のブログ記事()でも申し上げたごとく、石山本願寺城はたいへんに富貴な教団の本拠地であり、例えば天文10年8月の「暴風」で「寺中之櫓悉吹倒之、只五相残」(『証如上人日記』)とあるように、櫓がことごとく倒れた時に、残ったのは “わずか五基” だったというのですから、完全な状態ではひょっとすると、何十基!? もの櫓を構えた頑強な城であったのかもしれません。

しかし前出の「石山合戦図」を見ても建物は四天王寺などしか描写されておらず、櫓の数や位置などはまったく分かりませんので、そこで今回のイラストでは、そのあたりの「櫓の数のシミュレーション」だけに特化して描いてみることにします。

では、ご覧の豊臣秀吉による第一期築城から「時」を5年ほどさかのぼって…

【シミュレーション】
仮に櫓30基が「秀吉築城時と同じ範囲に」建っていた場合、
そうとうな数の櫓が建ち並んだ印象になる…


天正8年1580年、織田信長との11年におよぶ闘いを経て、
顕如(けんにょ)らが退去する直前の石山本願寺城(当ブログ仮説)

(※中心部の諸堂の配置は松岡利郎先生の復元図を参照しました)

ご覧のイラストはあくまでも櫓の数のシミュレーションでありまして、ひょっとすると櫓は「惣構え」の周縁に建ち並んでいたという考え方もありそうですが、ご覧のイラストは、仮に櫓30基が「秀吉築城時と同じ範囲に」建っていた場合、という想定で描きました。

先ほどの強風で櫓が倒れたとの記録に基づけば、かなり背の高い大櫓もあったのかもしれませんし、そんな鉄壁の防衛力が、頑強な「王城楽土」を実現したのではなかったでしょうか。

ですから後の教団の退去の際に、顕如の子・教如らが自ら火を放ったと伝わるのは、やはり「王城楽土」がそうとうに完璧であっただけに、それを信長にそのまま獲られることを恐れたからだろう、という風にも思えてまいります。…

本願寺第十一世・顕如(1543年-1592年)

 
 
<「世界一幸せな国」ブータンを統治する要塞寺院「ゾン」とは…>
 
 

さて、ここからは話の方向をちょっと変えまして、当ブログでは以前、ヒマラヤ山脈(インド北部のヒマーチャル地方)の城や山岳寺院には、下図のごとき「角塔」という、上部が張り出した塔が付設された例が多く存在していて、それらが日本の城の「唐造り」にそっくりだという話を申し上げました。

以前に申し上げた、チャイニのヨーギニー寺院の「角塔」があるのは…

そして今回の記事では、同じヒマラヤ山脈の国「ブータン」に是非ともご注目をいただきたいのです。

――ブータンと言えば、若きワンチュク国王とペマ王妃の来日でも知られた国ですが、国民総幸福量という考え方で「世界一幸せな国」を目指しているにも関わらず、実際には国内各地に要塞寺院「ゾン」Dzongというものがあり、それらが行政・宗教・社会の安定にものすごく寄与して来たそうです。

その要塞寺院「ゾン」が築かれ始めたのは、なんと、顕如が生きた時代とほぼ同じであったそうで、正直申しまして、ここからの記事は私が一箇所も行ったことがない所ばかりで、夢見るような記事になりそうですが、まずは興味がそそられる一方の要塞寺院の姿をご覧下さい。

ガサ・ゾン(Gasa dzong)ガサ県 17世紀創建/2008年の火災後に修築

パロ・リンプン(宝石の山)・ゾン(Paro rinpung dzong)パロ県 1644年再建

ルンツェ・ゾン(Lhuentse dzong)ルンツェ県 1654年築造

トンサ・ゾン(Trongsa dzong)トンサ県 1647年創建/1999年改装

トンサ・ゾンの内部

ハ・ゾン(Haa dzong)ハ県 1968年再建

「ゾン」の推進者ガワン・ナムゲルが創建したシムトカ・ゾン(Simtokha dzong)ティンプー県

17世紀にブータンを統一したガワン・ナムゲルの像

「ゾン」は地域の仏教の拠点と行政機関を兼ねた要塞ですが、ご覧のガワン・ナムゲル(1594年-1651年)は、チベット仏教のドゥク派の後継者争いに(チベット中央政府の介入で)やぶれたのち、当時はチベットの一部であったブータンに逃れ、そこで初代シャブドゥン(政教両面の統治者)としてブータンを統一し、独自の政権を樹立しました。

その過程でガワン・ナムゲルは、チベットやモンゴルの軍勢を撃退するため、1630年にシムトカで、1638年にワンデュ・ポダンで、1641年にタシチョで、それぞれ要塞寺院「ゾン」を建設し、それがブータン国内の各地に(=まるで日本の県庁のごとく、徳川幕藩体制下の諸大名の居城のごとくに!)ゾンが分布している、という状態の始まりになったそうです。

ゾンは元来、チベット発祥の建築ではあるもの、ブータンでの使われ方は独特であり、それを推進したガワン・ナムゲルという人は、例えば信長と争って石山本願寺城を退去した顕如のようでいて、ブータンでは信長・秀吉・家康の三人の役回りを一人で演じきった人のようでもあります。

ガワン・ナムゲルが築いた古都、プナカ・ゾン(Punakha dzong)プナカ県

ご覧のプナカは1637年から1907年までブータンの首都であり、このようにゾンは川沿いの低地にも築かれ、ここは2つの川、ポ・チュとモ・チュに挟まれた場所であり、守りやすい地の利を選んだそうです。

そして現在、仏教界の総本山でかつ王宮、国会議事堂や行政機関もある
タシチョ・ゾン(Tashichho dzong)ティンプー県 1907年創建/1968年再建


(※以上のゾンの写真はすべてウィキペディアより)

かくして「世界一幸せな国」ブータンには、国内統治のメカニズムとして要塞寺院が数多く存在しているわけで、平和や安定と防衛的な城(=拠点城郭)とは両立するものだという歴史的な証拠が、ここにあるように感じるのです。
 
 
 
<ブータンの「ゾン」の源流を、チベット自治区などに探せば…>
 
 

中国がダライ・ラマ政権を追放して接収した「ポタラ宮」

これを見れば、有名なポタラ宮もまた「ゾン」と同じルーツをもつ建造物なのだということが想像できるでしょう。

それにしても、ご覧の宮殿周辺の開発ぶりは言語道断と思えてなりませんが、さらにチベット自治区では、かのチベット動乱での人民解放軍との戦闘で破壊されたゾンも多いようで、シガツェ・ゾンなどはもう元来の姿が分からず、近年、中国政府は「国家歴史文化名城」に指定しつつポタラ宮そっくりに再建(ねつ造)したそうです。

しかし、まだこんな例もあり…

ギャンツェ・ゾン(Gyantse dzong)14世紀創建

! あああ… これって、チベットに現存する織田ノブナガの安土城か、岐阜城か… と頭がクラクラするような、死ぬまでに一度は行ってみたい、と思うばかりの要塞寺院ですが、ここもすでに国家歴史文化名城に指定され、中国政府の開発が進行中と言われます。

ご覧のとおり、ギャンツェ・ゾンは左右の峰に登り石垣か、連続する櫓のような構造が伸びていて、その先はふもとの町にまで延びているようです。

で、ここにギャンツェ・ゾンの【google映像検索ページ】をリンクしておきましたので、これをご覧になれば、その複雑な姿もある程度、理解できそうですし、驚くべきは、写真のふもとの町は「根城」のごとくに塁壁で囲い込まれ、山上のゾンと一体化して防衛されている点でしょう。

で、さらに隣国ネパールにはこんなゾンも… 「シェガー・ゾン」!

山頂から中腹の下あたりまで囲い込んで要塞化したシェガー・ゾン Shegar dzong は、まるで倭城のいくつかの城や松山城のようでありながら、決して地上との連絡のためにそれをした訳ではなさそうで、やはり主眼は <山上での立て籠もり> にあるところが実に興味深いゾンです。

中腹下の集落(=修道院)から地上までは小さな道がつけられていて、画面中央下の別の集落につながっているようで、かつては約800人の僧侶が修道院に入って修業をしていたそうです。

では最後にもう一度、前出のインド・ヒマーチャル地方にもどってみれば、
こんな守り方もあったか と目からウロコの修道院、
「キ・ゴンパ」Ki Gompa(11世紀創建)

以上のごとく、ヒマラヤ山脈の国々の要塞寺院をネット上で見て行きますと、さながら「王城楽土の作り方」を見ているような気分になります。

で、今回ご覧いただいた要塞寺院はすべて、インド発祥の「仏教」寺院でありまして、そこには仏教と要塞寺院のあり方に何か関連性が感じられ、例えて言うなら、本尊とそれを守護する護法神(十二神将など)といった考え方が影響して来たのではなかったでしょうか。

さらに思い切って申し上げるなら、そういった仏教のならわしと、仏教国の「城づくり」の間にも何かつながりがあるように思えて来ますし、それがアジアの仏教国において(儒教の国には見られない)ある種の社会的「安定」をもたらしたようにも感じるのですが、どうなのでしょう。…
 

※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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