毛利輝元らは聚楽第で天守を見ていなかった!? とすれば… 広島城天守をめぐる“ぬぐえぬ疑問”



毛利輝元らは聚楽第で天守を見ていなかった!? とすれば… 広島城天守をめぐる “ぬぐえぬ疑問”

前回までの記事では、聚楽第跡地の地中探査の結果に基づけば、本丸の北西隅にかなり飛び出た形の広い天守台には、おそらく望楼型の天守がなじまないため、二代目・豊臣秀次の頃になってから『御所参内・聚楽第行幸図屏風』にあるような層塔型「御三階」が、その広い天守台の真ん中に建てられたのではないか… などと申し上げて来ました。

では、それ以前の、豊臣秀吉が関白の頃はどうなっていたのか?と申しますと、天正15年(1589年)に聚楽第が完成したのち、翌16年に毛利輝元ら毛利家の主従が聚楽第を訪れていて、その様子が『輝元公上洛日記』にあり、その中にかすかに聚楽第の建築についても言及があります。
 
 
七月廿四日乙亥 雨
…午刻に聚楽へ御出仕候。関白様殿様御進物銀子三千枚折に入御太刀一腰惣金具御馬一疋月毛御鷹五居、金吾様へ沈香百兩虎皮拾枚御太刀一腰金覆輪、北政所様へ銀子貳百枚白糸三折、三丸他御奏者前野但馬守。御対面の御座配の次第御食被進時の段。…

八月七日戊子 天曇
…未刻に聚楽へ御出仕候、碁被成御覧。其以後御座席台所不残見せ被参せ候、駿河大納言大和大納言殿御案内者也。関白様も姫子御いたき被成度候、御出候て御雑談なと有之。…

八月廿七日戊申 天晴
…酉刻に御暇乞関白様へ御出仕候。太刀一腰梨地銀子五十枚御進上。関白様被成御家顔御馬一疋被進候間、御厩の内を御覧にて何成とも御気に入を可有御取の由にて綾の御馬御拝領候。…
 
 
 
という風に「御対面(所)」「御座席」「台所」「御厩」を輝元らに見せつつ、それで城内を「不残(のこらず)見せ被参せ候」と言うのですから、この時点の聚楽第というのは、その後、輝元らが一連の旅の最後に大坂城を訪問した際には、秀吉自身がわざわざ「天守」に登って案内したのと比べますと、印象として、けっこうギャップがあるように感じられるものです。

このことからも、以前から城郭ファンや研究者の間では “聚楽第には天守が無かった” との見方が一部で示されて来たわけですが、そうなりますと、近年、佐竹家の臣・平塚滝俊の日記をもとに、改めて話題になった <広島城天守の創建の時期=天正20年以前説> とのカラミが大変に気になってまいります。!

と申しますのも、ご承知のとおり毛利家は、聚楽第の「縄張り」を写して広島城を築いた、との記述が江戸時代の文献にいくつもあるものの、もしも輝元らが “巨大な天守台上にまだ天守の無い聚楽第” を見て帰ったのだとしたら、その後に秀吉に大坂城天守は案内されたものの、帰国後、堂々と広島城に天守を創建できたのだろうか… と、それまでの秀吉(織田家)と毛利家との政治的な経緯(この時も毛利は豊臣配下で最大級の外様大名)からやや心配になるためでして、そのうえさらに、こんな指摘も過去にあったからです。

広島城天守(1958年外観復元)

(西ヶ谷恭弘監修『日本の城 〔戦国~江戸〕編』1997年より)

広島城天守は二層屋根が大入母屋で、初層・二層が同一平面で、最上階は望楼廻縁となり、確かに古式な手法を伝える。
しかし、三層以上は層塔式という寄棟形式の逓減率(ていげんりつ)が大きくなる手法で、名古屋・松江・萩・姫路城と共通する慶長後期の型を呈している。以上の点からも、原爆で失われ、今復原されている型の広島城天守の造営は、毛利氏時代ではなく、福島正則時代のことと考えられる。
以上述べた天守成立は、あくまでも昭和二十年八月まであった天守についてである。正則入部前、毛利氏時代に天守の存在を否定するものではない。毛利氏時代に天守が建造されていたと考えるなら、位置も外容の型も異なるものであったに違いない。

(中略)
毛利氏時代の広島城本丸が現状と異なっていたことは、昭和四十一年の天守台石垣下の発掘調査で、古い時代の石垣が出土したことからも窺える。
 
 
この西ヶ谷先生の指摘がずっと私の頭の片隅に残っていたせいか、今回の聚楽第跡地の地中探査から、輝元らが見た聚楽第には “まだ天守が無かったのかもしれない” “平塚滝俊が天守と見誤ったのは前田利家邸の四重?櫓だったのか” との疑いを感じた時には、真っ先にこの指摘を思い出しました。

西ヶ谷先生の指摘は、要するに、上の写真の広島城天守は、聚楽第とは直結しない存在だというお考えなのでしょう。

そして先生はこの本の中では「位置も外容の型も異なる」毛利氏時代の広島城天守の具体像については特におっしゃっておりませんので、その後、私なりにつらつらと想像をめぐらせた中で、俄然(がぜん)、私の注意を引いたのが以下の有名な城絵図です。

広島市立中央図書館蔵『諸国当城図』「安芸広島」より

ご覧の図は広島城の数ある城絵図の中で、江戸初期・正保以降の一時期の様子を描いたものと言われますが、大きな特徴として、本丸南西側の水掘だけが極端に広く描かれた一枚です。

江戸時代の天守は現状と同じく本丸の北西隅(図では左上の隅)にあったわけですが、何故これほどまでに “南西側の水掘” が強調されて描かれたのか、理由が分かりません。

そして、このことはかの『正保城絵図』の広島図においても、描写の精緻さの差はあっても同様のことで、該当する辺りの水堀には「廣五十三間」という書き込みがあり、城内でも飛びぬけて幅広い水掘であったことが分かります。

【ご参考】本丸南西隅の石垣 天守台などと異なり、現状の石垣は明治時代の改修

ちなみに、全国の近世城郭のうち、本丸の一遇に天守があった城を見て行きますと、必ずそうなるという法則は無かったようですが、天守周辺の水堀が城内で最大の堀幅であった、という事例はいくつも見受けられます。

天守周辺の水堀が最も幅広であった城の例(上:松本城/下:八代城)

こうした現象は、前述のような広島城の状況に対して、少なからぬ “疑問” を感じさせるものですし、さらに申し上げるならば、現在の広島城天守の位置は、関ヶ原合戦後に毛利家が築城した萩城とはまるで異なっていて、むしろ萩城の天守の位置(=本丸南西隅)の方が、城の大手から見て<本丸の左手前隅角>という織田信長の作法(当サイト仮説)にかなった姿であり、織豊大名の城としては自然な姿であろうと感じられてなりません。

そこで試しに、城の大手から見て <本丸の左手前隅角> という位置を、広島城に当てはめてみると、どうなるのか―――

もう皆様のご推察のとおり、私が申し上げたい事柄というのは、もしも毛利輝元らが聚楽第で見たのが “天守台だけの状態” であったのなら、毛利家としては僭越(せんえつ)な行為は間違っても出来なかったはずで、ひょっとすると、広島城も危険回避の “横並び感覚” で築城がなされ、本丸北西隅には天守台だけ!!が築かれたのではあるまいか―――

そして問題の本丸の南西隅には、言わば自前用の、純然たる望楼型の天守が上げられたのではなかったのかと。

そしてその場合でも、広島城天守の創建の時期としては「天正20年以前」で間違いないのでしょうが、ただその時に出現した天守は「位置も外容の型も異なるもの」であり、江戸時代から昭和20年まで続いた天守は、やはり福島正則あたりが、毛利家築造の天守台のうえに新築した別の天守だったのだと…

という風に、ここへ来てようやく、未完のままのパズルがカチッカチッ! と綺麗にはまる音が聞えて来たようであり、どうも私なんぞは気分が落ち着かないのです。…

※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

“毛利輝元らは聚楽第で天守を見ていなかった!? とすれば… 広島城天守をめぐる“ぬぐえぬ疑問”” への152件のコメント

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