織田信長の「空中庭園」は実在した?


織田信長の「空中庭園」は実在した?

前回、前々回と、岐阜城をめぐる織田信長の革新的な試みについてご紹介しました。

特に前回は、山麓の「四階建て楼閣」について、やや否定的な記事を書いてしまったため、言いっぱなしではいけないと思い、今回は私なりの “代案” をお話します。

(※これをご覧になっている豊臣大坂城ファンの方、次回からまた話を大坂城に戻しますので何とぞご容赦を!)

さて最初に、前回の引用文をもう一度だけご覧いただきたいのですが…

(秋田裕毅『神になった織田信長』1992年より)

問題は、この建物が多層、つまり四階建の建物であったかどうかである。というのは、三階の茶室は、「甚だ閑静なる處」にあり、庭を備えていたと、フロイスはのべているからである。
多層の建物ならば、二階から三階に上がったからといって、急に閑静な場になることはない。
まして空中に庭をつくることなど、いかに信長でも不可能である。

 
 
これは「四階建て楼閣」が楼閣ではなく、階段状の敷地に平屋の御殿が四段に連なったもの、という解釈に立った発言です。

ご注目をいただきたいのは最後の赤文字にした部分、この部分が、実は織田信長以降の(特に豊臣秀吉とその家臣団の)望楼型天守においては、必ずしも “不可能ではなかった” というお話なのです。……

豊臣秀吉の大坂城天守台(模式図)

以前にもご覧いただいた図ですが、今回の話題の焦点となるのは、図の明るくなった部分です。

ここは天守台上の北東隅にある “空き地” であって、北側の山里丸からは高さ9間余(約18m)の高所にあり、史料等では、何のために設けられたスペースなのか定かでありません。

一説には、ここが鬼門の方角(北東)にあたるため、いわゆる “鬼門除け” として建物を窪ませた部分だとも説明されて来ました。

ですが、例えば上の模式図では、この場所は本丸の奥御殿から天守台の石段を登りきって(天守内の)階段を一つ上がった位置にあり、すなわち半地下の穴倉床面と同一レベルにあることになります。

こうした “空き地” が織豊期天守の天守台上によく存在することは、以前から、西ヶ谷恭弘先生が盛んに主張されてきた点でもありますが、それが実際に、どういう状態で維持されていたのかが問題なのです。

高知城 本丸御殿の奥の庭(左写真の中央は天守の壁/右写真は庭の様子)

ご覧の写真は、豊臣秀吉の家臣で(大河ドラマ『功名が辻』でもご存知の)山内一豊が築いた高知城の、天守と本丸御殿の奥の小さな庭です。

この庭は面積が本丸全体の八分の一ほどになり、本丸御殿の南から東側にかけて三角形に広がっていて、塀の向こうは高さ数m以上の石垣による断崖です。

ここは本丸中央の表側からは天守と本丸御殿によって遮られ、一旦、御殿にあがって奥に進まないと見ることの出来ない、隔絶した空間です。

これらの天守や御殿は江戸中期に火災で焼失し、その後、創建時と同じ配置で再建されたものであることが分かっています。
 
 
さて、今回申し上げたい結論はすでにご想像のとおりであり、例えば、大坂城天守の問題の “空き地” が、高知城のように、庭としてのしつらえがあったならば、それはもう、フロイスらの宣教師にとっては、立派な「空中庭園」に見えたのではないでしょうか??

こうした考え方を岐阜城山麓の「四階建て楼閣」に当てはめるならば、発掘調査が行われた居館跡のいずれかに、階段状の適当な敷地の痕跡があれば、そこに “空中庭園をもつ楼閣” を想定することは、十分に可能だと申し上げたいのです。
 
 
つまり、一見対立しているかに思える「楼閣説」と「階段状の御殿説」は “折衷案” がありうる、ということなのです。

そしてその信長の「空中庭園」は、のちに豊臣秀吉と家臣団の望楼型「天守」において、天守台上のスペースとして受け継がれたものとも言えそうです。
 

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