仇敵・毛利家をも制覇した“信長の作法”


仇敵・毛利家をも制覇した “信長の作法”

前回ご覧いただいた江戸城の初代(慶長度)天守が、大手から見ると、やはり詰ノ丸の「左手前の隅角」にあった一件は、もちろん江戸城にとどまらず、様々な城に新たな解釈を加えるものです。

そこで今回は、この「作法」を適用してみるとスッキリ整理できる、各地の “天守の位置問題” についてお話しましょう。

A.中津城 ~信長の「作法」からも言える本来の天守位置~

大分県の中津城は、近年、旧藩主の奥平家の関連会社が3億2000万円で売りに出したことで話題になりましたが、今夏、中津市への売却交渉が決裂したそうで、この調子では中国人資産家にでも買われてしまいそう(でも本丸の神社が障壁か…)で、先行きはかなり不透明です。
(※10月15日補筆/このほど売却先は東京の福祉事業を営む会社に決まったとのこと)

さらに、この城、かつて築城時に天守(三重櫓とも)があったと言われる所とは別の位置に、写真の鉄筋コンクリート造の模擬天守が建てられていて、なかなかに問題が多いのです。

中津城 現在の模擬天守

この城は藤堂高虎らと並ぶ “築城名人” 黒田官兵衛(孝高/如水)が、豊臣秀吉から中津16万石を与えられて築いた、自らの居城です。

官兵衛にとっては、長年の秀吉に対する奉公の恩賞として得た城であり、また築城名人という自意識も既にあったかと推測されますので、当然ながら、天守の位置をおざなりに決めるはずはなかったでしょう。

今では城内の案内板等にも「本来の天守位置」がしっかりと示されて来ていますが、この位置は、かつて本丸が「上段」と「下段」に分かれていた当時を考えれば、ちゃんと本丸上段の「左手前の隅角」になるのです。

ですから、この本来の天守位置は「信長の作法」から見ても正しく、かつ、その三重の建物はまぎれもなく「天守」であったはずだ、ということが補強的に説明できるわけです。

やや大げさに申しますと、そうした天守の “有職故実” を踏まえることも、築城名人にとっては必須の素養だったのかもしれません。
 
 
B.弘前城 ~定石を堅く守っていた築城時の五重天守~

青森県の弘前城は、津軽為信が、徳川家康の許しを得て計画を開始した居城で、二代目の信牧のとき、五重の天守も完成したと言います。

しかし今、私たちが見られるのは、本丸の南東隅にある江戸後期の再建天守(三階櫓)であり、本来の五重天守は、向かって左側奥(南西隅)の見えづらい所にあったと『正保城絵図』に書き込まれています。

これには異説もあるものの、いったい何故、そんな場所に本来の天守があったというのか、その理由に至っては、殆ど説明されて来ておりませんでした。

弘前城 江戸後期の再建天守

ですがご覧のとおり、本来の天守位置は、本丸の大手側から見ますと、ちゃんと「本丸の左手前の隅角」にあるわけで、言わば家康と同様に、天守の「作法」に従っていたに過ぎないのです。

5万石に満たない津軽家は、分不相応の巨大な城郭と五重天守を築くにあたっては、やはり定石を踏まえることも強くこだわったのではないでしょうか。

勝手な私見ですが、二ノ丸の現存の櫓群にしても、どことなく「聚楽第図屏風」の櫓群に似ているように感じられてなりません。
 
 
C.萩城 ~仇敵・毛利家にまで及んだ信長の天守立地の「作法」~

さて、織田信長は、備中高松城で毛利勢と対峙する秀吉の援軍要請を受け、明智光秀に出陣を命じたところ、逆にその明智勢に一命を絶たれてしまいました。

思えば、信長に追われた足利義昭を迎え入れ、石山本願寺に補給を行うなど、毛利家は一貫して信長の仇敵でした。

その毛利家が、関ヶ原の敗戦後に萩に居城を移したとき、何故かご覧のとおり、天守を「本丸の左手前の隅角」に建てているのです。

萩城の本丸跡 向かって左奥がやはり天守台!

これは実に不思議な光景に見えてならないのですが、信長の怨讐が、ついに毛利家にのしかかった結果なのでしょうか……

でも、毛利家の以前の居城・郡山城においても、秀吉の軍門に下った毛利輝元が、城山の山頂に本丸を築いたとき、大手から見て左側に「天守台」を寄せていた点など、すでに不可解な現象は始まっていたようなのです。

もしかすると、秀吉の政権下で「信長の作法」は天下の作法として定着し、それはもはや天下人の秀吉や家康に従う “ポーズ” に変容していたのかもしれません。

岐阜城 山麓居館と山頂部の城塞

いずれにしましても、信長の岐阜城から始まった同様の天守位置は、例えば洲本城や村上城など、各地の城でなぞるように踏襲され、それは思わぬ城にも及んでいたようです。
 
 
D.順天城(韓国) ~天下布武の城・岐阜城の「作法」が援用された城~

秀吉が軍を差し向けた文禄・慶長の役で、朝鮮半島に築かれた「倭城」群にも、それぞれ天守のあったことが記録されています。

しかし多くは、狭小な峰上に本丸を細長く縄張りしたためか、峰の方角にしばられて、天守の立地は種々雑多なものになっています。

そんな中でも比較的、余裕を持って縄張りされたように感じるのが、半島南岸に並んだ倭城群の最左翼にあった、順天城です。

順天城の城址(韓国 全羅南道/曲輪の名は仮称)

築城者は浅野家文書から宇喜多秀家と藤堂高虎(在番は小西行長)とされ、ご覧のとおり、ここにも岐阜城と同じ天守位置が繰り返されているようなのです。

ということは、信長の「作法」は朝鮮半島にも及んだのでしょうか?

ここで改めて申しますと、戦国時代を日本の国家の分裂状態と見なして、新たな武器や戦法を駆使しつつ中央集権的な体制に再統一すべく戦闘を続けたのが、信長の「天下布武」であったとするなら、天守とは、その版図を示した “維新碑” であったろう、というのが当サイトの主張です。

ですから、そうした天守が、秀吉の指示で朝鮮半島の南岸に建てられたとき、信長が「天下布武」印を使い始めた岐阜城の景観が、あるべき姿として援用されたことは、半島南部の “切り取り戦”「慶長の役」に対する、秀家や高虎の意識を表していたようでもあり、まことに興味深いのです。…
 

※ぜひ皆様の応援を。下のバナーに投票(クリック)をお願いします。
にほんブログ村 歴史ブログ 戦国時代へ
※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

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