望楼のある「極楽橋」は築城当初から存在していた



望楼のある「極楽橋」は築城当初から存在していた

毎日この国の存亡が問われる局面下で、たかが橋一本にこだわるマニア心理はおぞましいと思いつつ、それでも自分なりの決着をつけねば死ぬに死にきれません。

で、「覚悟を決めて」この記事を書きます。……
 
 
前回から話題の大坂城「極楽橋」は、豊臣秀吉の晩年の慶長元年(1596年)になって新設されたものだという《慶長元年説》が昨今、定番化しつつありますが、これには大きな戸惑いを感じざるをえません。

と申しますのは、この件では過去に、城郭研究のパイオニアの一人、櫻井成廣(さくらい なりひろ)先生が示したような “別の考え方”(後述)があり、私もずぅーっと(20年以上?)そうだろうと思って来たからです。

それは、屋根や望楼のある廊下橋の「極楽橋」は、結論として、秀吉の築城当初からあったことを容認しうる考え方です。

(※そこで当サイトでは、廊下橋の「極楽橋」は、天正11年(1583年)に始まった秀吉の築城時に架けられたものと考えています)
 
 
で、問題の《慶長元年説》の根拠になっているのは、1596年(慶長元年)12月28日付の、ルイス・フロイスの「年報補筆」(『イエズス会日本報告集』所収)の中の「大坂と都での造営のこと」というくだりです。

このくだりは直前に「太閤様へのシナ国王の使節」という文章もあって、まさに朝鮮出兵の収拾策をめぐる明国との交渉の経緯が紹介され、それに続くくだりに、太閤・秀吉が大坂城の堀に「巨大な橋」を架けた話が出てまいります。

やや長文ですが、一連の全文をまずご覧下さい。

(松田毅一監訳『イエズス会日本報告集』所収「1596年度の年報補筆」より/※細字だけ当ブログの補筆)

(太閤)はまた城の濠に巨大な橋が架けられることを望んだが、それによって既述の政庁への通路とし、また(橋に)鍍金した屋根を設け、橋の中央に平屋造りの二基の小櫓を突出させた。
その小櫓には、四角の一種の旗幟
(のぼり)〔長さ八~九パルモ、幅四パルモ〕が鍍金された真鍮から垂れ、また(小櫓)には鳥や樹木の種々の彫刻がかかっている。(小櫓)は太陽の光を浴びるとすばらしい輝きを放ち、櫓に新たな装飾を添える。
(橋の)倚りかかれるよう両側の上方に連ねられた欄干は、はめ込みの黄金で輝き、舗道もまた非常に高価な諸々の装飾で鮮明であり、傑出した工匠たちの手によって入念に仕上げられたすばらしい技巧による黄金塗りの板が介在して輝いていた。
そこで堺奉行(小西ベント如清)はこの建物について話題となった時、我らの同僚の某司祭に、(その橋は)十ブラザ前後あるので、黄金と技巧に一万五千金が注ぎ込まれたことを肯定したほどである。

 
 
《慶長元年説》では、この「巨大な橋」こそ極楽橋であり、「鳥や樹木の種々の彫刻」等といった華やかな描写は、例えばオーストリアで発見された豊臣期大坂図屏風の極楽橋の描き方によく符合するとしています。

確かに一見、そのようにも感じられますが、それは話の大前提として、大坂城には華やかな廊下橋がこれ(極楽橋)一本しか無かった場合のことです。

ところが、実際は、そうでも無いようなのです。
 
 
 
<論点1.『日本西教史』が伝える、豊臣大坂城にあった “もう一つの廊下橋” >
 
 
 
(ジャン・クラセ『日本西教史』太政官翻訳より/※細字だけ当ブログの補筆)

太閤殿下は頻(しき)りに支那の使者を迎ふる用意を命じ、畳千枚を敷るゝ程の宏大美麗なる会同館を建て、(中略)其内に入れば只金色の光り耀然たるを見るのみ。
城外には湟
(ほり)を隔てゝ長さ六丈、幅二丈五尺の舞台を設け、(中略)舞台の往来を便にせんと湟(ほり)を越して橋を架す、長さ僅かに拾間(じゅっけん)(ばか)りにして其(その)(あたい)一萬五千金なりとぞ。
鍍金したるを瓦を以て屋を葺き、柱欄干甃石
(いしだたみ)等も金箔を以て覆はざるなし。其頃大坂に在て此荘厳を目撃せし耶穌(やそ)教師も、此の如き結構は世に類なしと云へり。
 
 
ご覧のように『日本西教史』では、冒頭の『イエズス会日本報告集』とまったく同時期の情勢を伝えた部分で、どう見ても「極楽橋」とは別個の、金づくしの廊下橋が新規に架けられたことを伝えています。

こちらの廊下橋は、「畳千枚」の「会同館」つまり千畳敷(御殿)と、その前の堀を隔てた大舞台とを「往来」するための橋のようです。

「鍍金したるを瓦を以て屋を葺き」とありますから間違いなく廊下橋ですし、しかも「一万五千金」という費用の額も『イエズス会日本報告集』と一致しています。
 
 
櫻井先生はこれを自作の模型にも反映させていて、ここで是非とも、先生の著書から写真を引用させて戴きたく存じます。

櫻井成廣先生の豊臣大坂城の模型(『戦国名将の居城』より)

左から千畳敷、廊下橋(金ノ渡廊)、大舞台

この模型は本丸を南西から見たところで、「極楽橋」はちょうど反対側の見えない所になります。

櫻井先生はこのように表御殿曲輪の堀際に、清水の舞台のような懸造り(かけづくり)で千畳敷が建てられ、同時に廊下橋や大舞台も併設されたとしていて、これらによって秀吉は、明国の使節に豊臣政権の余力(戦争継続力)を誇示しようとしたのかもしれません。

(櫻井成廣『豊臣秀吉の居城 大阪城編』1970)

フロイシュ書簡及び『日本西教史』は御殿の前に堀を越して舞台を設けたとあり、西教史は御殿と舞台とを繋ぐのに約十間の廊下を以てしたと記して居るが、空堀の幅は本丸図によると十三間半であったから三間位突出ていれば廊下の長さは矢張り十間位になる筈であってよく一致する。
 
 
「三間位突出て」(つきでて)というのは懸造りの部分のことでしょうが、こうして櫻井先生が「金ノ渡廊」と仮称した(もう一つの)廊下橋こそ、冒頭の『イエズス会日本報告集』の「巨大な橋」に当たるのだろうと、ずぅーっと思い込んできた私としましては、いま何故、これが「極楽橋」と混同されてしまうのか、不思議でならない思いがします。

つまり慶長元年に架けられた廊下橋が、この「金ノ渡廊」であって、「極楽橋」はそれ以前から存在していたはずでは… と申し上げたいわけです。
 
 
そこで例えば「巨大な橋」という描写を、大坂城の堀のサイズに則して考えてみますと、両者の橋の印象はかなり異なっていたはずです。

何故なら、実際の橋脚の高さは大きく変わらなかったものの、水掘に架かる「極楽橋」は殆どが水面下で、一方の「金ノ渡廊」は水の無い空堀に架かっていたため、見える橋脚はおそらく3倍近い高さがあったと思われるからです。

 
 
<論点2.しかも『イエズス会日本報告集』の「橋の中央に 平屋造りの二基の小櫓を突出させた」形の廊下橋と言えば、あの巨大な橋も たしか秀吉が…>

(次回に続く)

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