家康が本当に好んだ天守の姿から問う、「江戸始図」解釈への疑問点


家康が本当に好んだ天守の姿から問う、「江戸始図」解釈への疑問点

徳川家康の江戸城(慶長度)天守をめぐる最近の論調について、
最大の疑問点(反論)は、下記の赤丸部分は本当に「多聞櫓」か??という点であり、
この部分の「線の太さ」は、二ノ丸以下の線とまるで変わらないことにご注目を。

しかも…


(※以上は松江歴史館蔵『極秘諸国城図』の江戸城図=いわゆる「江戸始図」より)

ご覧の各図で、今回の記事で申し上げたい事柄は、半分以上は紹介してしまったようにも思いますが、前回の「城の形が似ている」ことで何が読み取れるか?というテーマの第二弾として、今回は徳川家康が創建した江戸城の慶長度天守を取り上げてみたく存じます。

当サイト2012年度リポートの引用画像
故・内藤昌先生の復元による慶長度天守(イラストレーション:中西立太)

松江城管理事務所(当時)蔵『極秘諸国城図』の江戸城図を、現在の地図上にかぶせた状態

これらは2012年度リポートの冒頭でご覧いただいた図ですが、作図のもとになったのは、内藤昌先生の著書『ビジュアル版 城の日本史』(1995年出版)に載っていた『極秘諸国城図』の江戸城図でありまして、それまでよく知られていた『慶長十三年江戸図』に比べると、はるかに克明に本丸や詰ノ丸(天守構え)の様子が描かれていました。

そこで内藤先生復元のイラストレーションと作図を並べてご覧いただいたわけですが、厳密に申せば、内藤先生の復元はむしろ『慶長十三年江戸図』の方に基づいていたと申し上げざるをえないようです。

それはイラストの小天守や櫓の様子から言えることでして、三基?の天守や櫓で詰ノ丸を囲んだ環立式(連立式)天守として描きつつも、よくよく見れば小天守の位置がちょうど大天守に重なっていてハッキリしない、という辺りが、小天守の無い『慶長十三年江戸図』を主体にイラスト化をした経緯を、ありありと物語っているのではないでしょうか。

ですからその点で申しますと、冒頭の絵図のごとく、復元を『極秘諸国城図』の江戸城図=いわゆる「江戸始図」に基づいて行なうのならば、天守や櫓(多聞櫓)は本当に詰ノ丸を「完全に」囲っていたのだろうか?? という疑問を持たざるをえないことになります。

最大の疑問点は、赤丸部分は本当に「多聞櫓」か?という点であり、
この部分の「線の太さ」は、二ノ丸以下の線とまるで変わらない


(※ご覧の図は前出「極秘諸国城図をかぶせてみた状態」とは方角がほぼ逆。)

しつこいようで恐縮ですが、私が申し上げたい第一のポイントは、このように家康の慶長度天守は、必ずしも「櫓で完全に囲った環立式(連立式)天守だ」とは思えない、ということでありまして、問題の赤丸部分は、むしろ石垣上の狭間塀(さまべい)の類いだと読み取る方が、よほど自然であろうと感じられてなりません。

最近は、家康の慶長度天守を、姫路城とまったく同じ連立式(環立式)の天守だった、と紹介する雑誌やTV番組も登場していて、この第一のポイントだけは何としても皆様にお伝えしたいと思っておりまして、そう強く願うのは、家康の慶長度天守を「どういう天守の系譜のうえに考えるか」という大問題が前に横たわっているからなのです。

ご覧の岡崎城天守は元和3年(家康の死の翌年)に本多氏が建造した天守ですから、岡崎城が家康出生の城だとは言っても、この建物じたいは家康と直接の関係は無かったわけですが、何故か、東側(図では右側)に小天守とも言えそうな井戸櫓を連結し、南側には付櫓を段々に連ねていたところが、別のある天守に似ていて、たいへん気になる存在です。

松岡利郎先生作図「慶長度二条城(二条御屋敷・二条御構)推定図」(部分)

別のある天守と申し上げたのが、ご覧のとおりの、家康創建の二条城天守でありまして、松岡先生の考証によれば、こちらもまた東側(右側)に小天守を連結し、一方の南側は取付櫓や南廊下を連ねていたのだそうで、またご承知のとおり、この天守の木造部分は、豊臣秀長の大和郡山城天守をそのまま移築したものと判明しています。

つまりこの二条城天守と岡崎城天守は、90度違う方角にそれぞれ小天守と付櫓群を張り出すという、言わば「連結式天守」と「複合式天守」を組み合わせたような、独特のスタイルで共通していたわけです。

ですから、これらは新たに「複合連結式天守」と呼んでもいいような気がいたしますが、この独特のスタイルは、実は、家康の江戸城(慶長度)天守も、そうではなかったのか――― というのが本日最大のアピールポイントです。

<<家康の江戸城天守の「形」は、姫路城よりも、自身の二条城天守に似ていた!!?>>

冒頭から申し上げているとおり、ご覧の赤丸部分が狭間塀の類いであったなら、大小天守や付櫓・多聞櫓の連なりは基本的に「逆L字型」までであって、赤丸のあたりは抜けていたことになりますから、慶長度天守はまさに、家康自身の二条城と同じプラン(複合連結式)を踏襲したものと言えるでしょう。

そして二条城の「取付櫓」「南の廊下」に相当する江戸城の櫓は、ひょっとすると岡崎城のごとく段々に重階が低くなっていく櫓群(→それが図の左下から左方向へグーンと続いていく石塁上の多聞櫓ともシンクロする形)だったのではないかと想像しているのです。

かくして、家康の江戸城天守を「どういう天守の系譜のうえに考えるか」という大問題については、当サイトはこれまでに、家康好みの天守の原点は、天正17年建造の駿府城小天守(「小傳主」)のはずだと、年度リポートブログ記事で申し上げて来ました。

そこで、「系譜」のいちばん最初はその小天守、最後に岡崎城天守を(家康を回顧するための)二条城のリバイバル版として建造されたものと想定しますと、少なくとも、次の四つが「系譜」上に並ぶのではないでしょうか。

1)天正期の駿府城小天守(→中村忠一が移封先の米子城で模倣か)
2)二条城天守(豊臣秀長の大和郡山城天守の移築)
3)江戸城(慶長度)天守
4)岡崎城天守

これら四天守はどれも、当サイトが申し上げて来た「唐破風天守」と思われ…

宮上茂隆先生による二条城天守の復元(最上層の屋根に唐破風)

2012年度リポートでの『東照社縁起絵巻』に基づく江戸城天守

前出の岡崎城天守

このように並べてみて、家康自身が本当に好んだ天守はこのような姿ではなかったか、ということがボンヤリと(私なんぞには)見える気がしておりまして、いずれも破風の配置で「四方正面」を表現しつつ、最上階は高欄廻縁が無く、屋根に「唐破風」をすえ、櫓群を「複合連結式」で従えた姿で一貫しており、こうした天守を居城のトレードマークにしたのではなかったかと感じるのです。

(※ちなみに図中の江戸城天守だけ、桁行いっぱいの千鳥破風や入母屋破風がありませんが、これは江戸城天守の巨大さゆえという考え方が一つと、もう一つの考え方は、大手門や本丸御殿側の天守東面はこうした比翼千鳥破風であり、天守西面はやはり超大型の千鳥破風が一つだった、という考え方もありうるのではないでしょうか?

 と申しますのは、『東照社縁起絵巻』を描いた狩野探幽は、家康に江戸城内で謁見したとも言われ、そのおりに探幽が目撃したはずの慶長度天守は、当然ながら大手門側の東面であったはずですから、そんな記憶やスケッチ?をたどりつつ探幽は『東照社縁起絵巻』を仕上げたのだとしますと、天守は本丸御殿側の破風の数を多くすることがある、という伝統的な手法を慶長度天守も採用していたかもしれないからです…)

狩野探幽筆『東照社縁起絵巻』(日光東照宮蔵/巻第二 第五段「相国宣下」後の巻末部分より)

さて、当サイトは2012年度リポートにおいて、ご覧の絵は駿府城天守ではなくて、家康の江戸城天守を描いたものではないのか? という大胆仮説を展開しましたが、今回の記事の内容はこの絵にもぴったり当てはまり、ますます私なんぞは確信の度を深めております。
 
 
例えば、ご覧の絵から誰もが感じることと言えば、徳川の世の城郭でいっせいに普及する「白漆喰」が、小天守や付櫓の方に使われていて、大天守だけが、白漆喰とは違う “何か特別な意匠” で仕上げられている点でしょう。

このことは、家康が例の豊臣大坂城の「西ノ丸天守」で示した行動を思わず連想させるものでして、きっと家康は、複数の天守を比べて見せる “政治的効果” に味を占めていたのではないでしょうか。

――― つまり当時、白漆喰が以前より安く使えるようになった、ということは、すでに少なからぬ日本人が知っていた情報なのでしょうから、それを天下普請の江戸城天守で大々的に使ったからと言って、諸大名相手には、大した威圧効果も無かったのでは… という気がして来ます。

(※追記/慶長14~15年頃に完成したはずの大天守は、ご承知のとおり、「白い天守」としてはすでに最先端でもなく、家康の二条城天守や伏見城天守の数年遅れにあたり、姫路城天守の一年近く後の完成です)

それよりはいっそのこと、白漆喰の巨大な小天守や櫓を周囲に配しつつ、その中心に特別な意匠の大天守がそびえ立つ姿を見せた方が、徳川の圧倒的なヘゲモニーを示す格好にもなったのではないかと想像しているのです。
 
 
では最後に、そのようにして絵画史料の中に残された、当サイトが想定する江戸城(慶長度)天守の状態を、この際、思い切って異論は覚悟のうえで図示いたしますと…

※当サイトはリンクフリーです。
※本日もご覧いただき、ありがとう御座いました。

“家康が本当に好んだ天守の姿から問う、「江戸始図」解釈への疑問点” への161件のコメント

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