豊臣大坂城天守も階段群が2系統か →ならば建物の造りは「立体的御殿」のうち??



豊臣大坂城天守も階段群が2系統か →ならば建物の造りは「立体的御殿」のうち??

(『完訳フロイス日本史』「副管区長が大坂に関白を訪れた時の(関白の)歓待と恩恵について」より)

その後関白は、主城(天守閣)および財宝を貯蔵してある塔(トルレ)の門と窓を急ぎ開くように命じた。彼自ら城内を案内することになっていたが…
(中略)
そして途中では閉ざされていた戸や窓を自分の手で開いて行った。このようにして我らを第八階まで伴った。
(中略)
この最上階において関白はおもむろに着座し、我ら一同は彼の周りに座を占めた。その場所は狭く、我らの一行は三十名を越えるほど多かったので、幾人かは関白の衣服に触れたほどであった。
この席において関白は大いに心をこめて決意を述べ、下(しも)の九ヵ国を豊後、薩摩、山口の諸国主に分配するつもりだが…
(中略)こう述べると関白は立ち上がり、種々の別の階段から降り始めた。
 
 
このところ話題の豊臣大坂城天守は、その内部の様子が断片的にしか伝わっておらず、おそらく実際は「宝物蔵」として使ったらしい、という風に(上記のフロイス日本史など)様々な記録をもとに考えられ、当ブログもそのように紹介してまいりましたが、実は若干、そう言い切っていいのか… と思える節もあります。

と申しますのは、上記の引用文には「種々の別の階段から降り始めた」とありまして、天守の最上階から下の階には、複数の別々の階段を使って降りられる構造であった、と書かれたわけで、この天守も、内部の各階が2系統以上の階段群で接続されていた可能性があるからです。

2系統あった階段群は「立体的御殿」のなごりではないか…

【模式図】立体的御殿は階段にも「表」と「奥」があったのでは?

これらの図は過去のブログ記事で何度もご覧いただいたものですが、御殿建築が縦に重なった「立体的御殿(=天守の原初的なスタイル)」を当時の人々が不都合なく使うためには、ご覧のように、階段の位置が非常に重要なポイントであったはずでしょう。

そこで例えば「表の階段」「奥の階段」という風に、2系統の階段群で上下の階を接続すれば、かなり便利に使えたのかもしれませんし、現に、名古屋城大天守などは手前と奥に2系統の階段群が設けてあって、それらは「立体的御殿」のなごりとも見て取れます。

ということで、かの豊臣大坂城天守にも2系統以上の階段群があったとなれば、「実際上は宝物蔵」という解釈とは別に、建物の構造としては、やはり「立体的御殿」の影響を濃厚に受け継いだ建築物であった、という風にも思えてならないのです。

さらに申しますと、冒頭の引用文から、最上階は「畳敷きの座敷」であったことが明らかでしょうし、その点でも「立体的御殿」が感じられ、いっそう大胆なことを申せば、その引用文に続くくだりが、さらなる大問題に発展しそうなのです。!!

(冒頭の引用文の続き)

こう述べると関白は立ち上がり、種々の別の階段から降り始めた。
そして我らは同所から今まで見たものよりもさらに秘された幾つかの部屋のところで立ち止りながら進んだところ、関白はさらに自分が平素夫人と寝る場所を我らに見せた。
彼は納戸になっている室の戸を自ら開き、その中でおもむろに坐ったので、我らも彼とともに着座した。
その際、関白が彼女たちに、彼ら伴天連らを見たければ出てくるがよいと許可を与えたところ、かなりの人数の女たちが姿を現した。

(中略)
こうした談話と歓待で二時間以上が経過した後に、関白は我らに別れを告げた。
彼は一、二の婦人に平素は開けない秘密の門の鍵を奥から持って来るように命じ、そこから出るのがもっとも近道だからと言った。
そして彼は先頭に立って降りて行き、我らが先に通り、関白と我らが互いに会見した場所まで来ると立ち止り、非常に嬉しそうな面持でふたたび我らに別れを告げた。

 
 
さあ、ご覧の引用文が描いた「場所」は、いったいどこなのでしょう??

従来の解釈では、関白(豊臣秀吉)と宣教師らは、天守を出て、天守のすぐ足元の「御納戸御殿」に入り、そこで「夫人と寝る場所」を拝見したり、「かなりの人数の女たち」を目撃したのだと言われて来ましたが、本当にそうでしょうか。

ここで私なんぞが申し上げてみたいのは、織田信長の岐阜城においては、山麓御殿の四階建て楼閣の二階は、みごとな装飾の「婦人部屋」「王妃の休憩室」であったという宣教師の報告でありまして、すなわち「立体的御殿」の二階は「御上(おうえ)の階」=正室の部屋とする、信長の構想があったように思われる点です。

こうした仮説の延長線上で話を進めますと、ひょっとすると、秀吉の豊臣大坂城天守も二階は「御上(おうえ)の階」であったのかもしれず、そのため、先ほどの引用文が描写した「場所」も実は天守の二階! ! ! であったのかもしれない、という可能性が生じてまいります。

そして引用文に「彼は先頭に立って降りて行き」とあるように、秀吉らは問題の場所から “さらに降りて行った” ことが示されていますし、これらの点を総合して勘案しますと、豊臣大坂城天守の内部は “素っ気ない宝物蔵” と言うよりも、構造的に見れば、れっきとした「立体的御殿」の造りが施された格式ある空間であった、と考えてしかるべきではないでしょうか。
 
 
そう仮定して冒頭の引用文を見直しますと、「主城(天守閣)および財宝を貯蔵してある塔(トルレ)の…」という妙な表現のしかたも、フロイスらの「原初的な望楼型天守」に対する深い洞察を示しているのかもしれない… とさえ思えて来るのです。

→→ 豊臣大坂城天守も階によって、使い方に差があった? →「立体的御殿」の範疇(はんちゅう)か

 

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“豊臣大坂城天守も階段群が2系統か →ならば建物の造りは「立体的御殿」のうち??” への97件のコメント

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